Background The effectiveness of screening for lung cancer (LC) in smokers on a population level, as distinct from the special circumstances that may apply in a randomized trial of selected volunteers, has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we evaluate by the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) indicator the impact of a chest X-ray (CXR) screening programme carried out at community level on LC mortality in smokers. Methods All smokers of >10 pack-years, of both genders, ages 45–75 years, resident in 50 communities of the Province of Varese, Italy, screening-eligible, in 1997 were invited by their National Health Service (NHS) general practitioner physicians to a nonrandomized programme of five annual CXR screenings. The entire invitation-to-screen cohort (n = 5815 subjects) received NHS usual care, with the addition of CXR exams in volunteer participants (21% of invitees), and was observed through December 2006. To overcome participants’ selection bias of LC mortality assessment, for the entire invitation-to-screen cohort we estimated the LC-specific SMR, based on the local reference population receiving the NHS usual care. Results Over the 8-year period 1999–2006, a total of 172 cumulative LC deaths were observed in the invitation-to-screen cohort; 210 were expected based on the reference population. Each year in the invited cohort the observed LC deaths were fewer than expected. The cumulative LC SMR was 0.82 (95%CI, 0.67–0.99; p = 0.048), suggesting that LC mortality was reduced by 18% with CXR screening. Conclusion Implementation of a CXR screening programme at community level was associated with a significant reduction of LC mortality in smokers.

Assessment of lung cancer mortality reduction after chest X-ray screening in smokers: a population-based cohort study in Varese, Italy.

POLI, Albino;MANTOVANI, William;
2013

Abstract

Background The effectiveness of screening for lung cancer (LC) in smokers on a population level, as distinct from the special circumstances that may apply in a randomized trial of selected volunteers, has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we evaluate by the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) indicator the impact of a chest X-ray (CXR) screening programme carried out at community level on LC mortality in smokers. Methods All smokers of >10 pack-years, of both genders, ages 45–75 years, resident in 50 communities of the Province of Varese, Italy, screening-eligible, in 1997 were invited by their National Health Service (NHS) general practitioner physicians to a nonrandomized programme of five annual CXR screenings. The entire invitation-to-screen cohort (n = 5815 subjects) received NHS usual care, with the addition of CXR exams in volunteer participants (21% of invitees), and was observed through December 2006. To overcome participants’ selection bias of LC mortality assessment, for the entire invitation-to-screen cohort we estimated the LC-specific SMR, based on the local reference population receiving the NHS usual care. Results Over the 8-year period 1999–2006, a total of 172 cumulative LC deaths were observed in the invitation-to-screen cohort; 210 were expected based on the reference population. Each year in the invited cohort the observed LC deaths were fewer than expected. The cumulative LC SMR was 0.82 (95%CI, 0.67–0.99; p = 0.048), suggesting that LC mortality was reduced by 18% with CXR screening. Conclusion Implementation of a CXR screening programme at community level was associated with a significant reduction of LC mortality in smokers.
Lung cancer; Mortality; Smoking; Cohort study; Chest X-ray screening; Population-based
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/589752
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