Head trauma is one of the most frequent disabling diseases, with annual incidence of approximately 250-600 patients per 100,000, and mortality of 17 cases per 100,000. The mild head injury is nearly 15 times more frequent than the moderate, and more than 20 times than the severe. Although there are still contradictions regarding the clinical significance of the term “head injury”, it can not be considered synonymous with traumatic brain injury. The main challenge in the diagnosis lies in the fact that severe intracranial lesions are often associated with mild head injury, especially in the presence of specific risk factors. Despite the diagnostic gold standard is represented by computed tomography (CT), its systematic performance in all patients is unadvisable for limited prevalence of positivity, radiological risk, high cost and complexity. Several potential biomarkers have been proposed for the screening of patients, but protein S100B seems now the most promising for some clinical and analytical considerations. After performing a meta-analysis of clinical trials in patients with mild head injury, we calculated a cumulative area under the curve of 0.753 (95% CI, 0.752-0.754), a negative predictive value of 97.7% (95% CI, 97.5-97.8 %) and positive predictive value of 23.6% (95% CI, 23.2-24.0%) for brain injury. We therefore developed a diagnostic algorithm based on the preliminary assessment of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Patients with GCS ​​<14 are subjected to CT, those with values GCS​14-15 without risk factors are discharged, whereas protein S100B is assessed stat in those with GCS ​​14-15 and the presence of risk factors. According to the value of the marker, patients with a concentration below the diagnostic cut-offs are discharged, whereas CT is performed in those with higher concentrations. By combining the percentage of positive CT scans in patients with mild head trauma and the negative predictive value of protein S100B, this protocol would safely abate unnecessary CT by 30-50% and costs by 28%.

Diagnostic approach to the mild head trauma of the adult in Emergency Medicine: between biomarkers and imaging.

LIPPI, Giuseppe;
2013

Abstract

Head trauma is one of the most frequent disabling diseases, with annual incidence of approximately 250-600 patients per 100,000, and mortality of 17 cases per 100,000. The mild head injury is nearly 15 times more frequent than the moderate, and more than 20 times than the severe. Although there are still contradictions regarding the clinical significance of the term “head injury”, it can not be considered synonymous with traumatic brain injury. The main challenge in the diagnosis lies in the fact that severe intracranial lesions are often associated with mild head injury, especially in the presence of specific risk factors. Despite the diagnostic gold standard is represented by computed tomography (CT), its systematic performance in all patients is unadvisable for limited prevalence of positivity, radiological risk, high cost and complexity. Several potential biomarkers have been proposed for the screening of patients, but protein S100B seems now the most promising for some clinical and analytical considerations. After performing a meta-analysis of clinical trials in patients with mild head injury, we calculated a cumulative area under the curve of 0.753 (95% CI, 0.752-0.754), a negative predictive value of 97.7% (95% CI, 97.5-97.8 %) and positive predictive value of 23.6% (95% CI, 23.2-24.0%) for brain injury. We therefore developed a diagnostic algorithm based on the preliminary assessment of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Patients with GCS ​​<14 are subjected to CT, those with values GCS​14-15 without risk factors are discharged, whereas protein S100B is assessed stat in those with GCS ​​14-15 and the presence of risk factors. According to the value of the marker, patients with a concentration below the diagnostic cut-offs are discharged, whereas CT is performed in those with higher concentrations. By combining the percentage of positive CT scans in patients with mild head trauma and the negative predictive value of protein S100B, this protocol would safely abate unnecessary CT by 30-50% and costs by 28%.
Head trauma; head injury; protein S100B
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/541749
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