The in vivo labeling and brain imaging of dopamine transporters measure the density of dopamine neuron terminals in the human caudate/putamen. A review of such studies shows that the long-term use of antipsychotics had no major effect on the density of the dopamine terminals in individuals who had no tardive dyskinesia, but had reduced the density in those patients with tardive dyskinesia. In addition, the normal loss of dopamine terminals in healthy individuals was approximately 5% per decade. However, this rate of cell loss was apparently increased by approximately three-fold, to about 15% per decade, in schizophrenia patients using antipsychotics on a long-term basis, as measured by the in vivo imaging of the dopamine transporters in the dopamine neuron terminals. While an apparent reduction in dopamine transporters may result from reduced expression of the transporters secondary to antipsychotic treatment, the seemingly increased loss rate is consistent with the accumulation of antipsychotics in the neuromelanin of the substantia nigra, subsequent injury to the dopamine-containing neurons, and the development of extrapyramidal motor disturbances such as tardive dyskinesia or Parkinson's disease.

Loss of dopamine neuron terminals in antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia: relation to tardive dyskinesia.

TINAZZI, Michele
2013

Abstract

The in vivo labeling and brain imaging of dopamine transporters measure the density of dopamine neuron terminals in the human caudate/putamen. A review of such studies shows that the long-term use of antipsychotics had no major effect on the density of the dopamine terminals in individuals who had no tardive dyskinesia, but had reduced the density in those patients with tardive dyskinesia. In addition, the normal loss of dopamine terminals in healthy individuals was approximately 5% per decade. However, this rate of cell loss was apparently increased by approximately three-fold, to about 15% per decade, in schizophrenia patients using antipsychotics on a long-term basis, as measured by the in vivo imaging of the dopamine transporters in the dopamine neuron terminals. While an apparent reduction in dopamine transporters may result from reduced expression of the transporters secondary to antipsychotic treatment, the seemingly increased loss rate is consistent with the accumulation of antipsychotics in the neuromelanin of the substantia nigra, subsequent injury to the dopamine-containing neurons, and the development of extrapyramidal motor disturbances such as tardive dyskinesia or Parkinson's disease.
caudate nucleus; dopamine supersensitivity; putamen; striatum
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/524151
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