Upper body has a considerable role in cross-country skiing particularly during double poling (DP), in which strong and fast propulsive actions are exerted entirely through the poles. Our hypothesis was that metabolic rate during DP exercises is determined by the cost of force generation. Furthermore, since DP is far from human legged-locomotion, we hypothesized that the cost of force generation coefficient (K [J•N-1]) could be more predictive of performance than energetic cost of locomotion (C [J•m-1•kg-1]), because of the dimensional meaning of the measurements.
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