OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of tubes mixing (gentle vs. vigorous) on diagnostic blood specimens collected in vacuum tube systems by venipuncture.DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood was collected for routine coagulation, immunochemistry and hematological testing from one hundred volunteers into six vacuum tubes: two 3.6mL vacuum tubes containing 0.4mL of buffered sodium citrate (9NC) 0.109mol/L: 3.2W/V%; two 3.5mL vacuum tubes with clot activator and gel separator; and two 3.0mL vacuum tubes containing 5.9mg K(2)EDTA (Terumo Europe, Belgium). Immediately after the venipuncture all vacuum tubes (each of one additive type) were processed through two different procedures: i) Standard: blood specimens in K(2)EDTA- or sodium citrate-vacuum tubes were gently inverted five times whereas the specimens in tubes with clot activator and gel separator were gently inverted ten times, as recommended by the manufacturer; ii) Vigorous mix: all blood specimens were shaken up vigorously during 3-5s independently of the additive type inside the tubes. The significance of the differences between samples was assessed by Student's t-test or Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test after checking for normality. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05.RESULTS: No significant difference (P<0.05) was detected between the procedures for all tested parameters. Surprisingly only a visual alteration (presence of foam on the top) was shown by all the tubes mixed vigorously before centrifugation (Fig. 1 A, B and C). Moreover the serum tubes from vigorous mixing procedure shows a "blood ring" on the tube top after stopper removal (Fig. 1 D).CONCLUSION: Our results drop out a paradigm suggesting that the incorrect primary blood tubes mixing promotes laboratory variability. We suggest that similar evaluation should be done using other brands of vacuum tubes by each laboratory manager.

Effects of vigorous mixing of blood vacuum tubes on laboratory test results.

De Souza Lima Oliveira, Gabriel;LIPPI, Giuseppe;SALVAGNO, GIAN LUCA;MONTAGNANA, Martina;GELATI, Matteo;GUIDI, Giancesare
2013

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of tubes mixing (gentle vs. vigorous) on diagnostic blood specimens collected in vacuum tube systems by venipuncture.DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood was collected for routine coagulation, immunochemistry and hematological testing from one hundred volunteers into six vacuum tubes: two 3.6mL vacuum tubes containing 0.4mL of buffered sodium citrate (9NC) 0.109mol/L: 3.2W/V%; two 3.5mL vacuum tubes with clot activator and gel separator; and two 3.0mL vacuum tubes containing 5.9mg K(2)EDTA (Terumo Europe, Belgium). Immediately after the venipuncture all vacuum tubes (each of one additive type) were processed through two different procedures: i) Standard: blood specimens in K(2)EDTA- or sodium citrate-vacuum tubes were gently inverted five times whereas the specimens in tubes with clot activator and gel separator were gently inverted ten times, as recommended by the manufacturer; ii) Vigorous mix: all blood specimens were shaken up vigorously during 3-5s independently of the additive type inside the tubes. The significance of the differences between samples was assessed by Student's t-test or Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test after checking for normality. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05.RESULTS: No significant difference (P<0.05) was detected between the procedures for all tested parameters. Surprisingly only a visual alteration (presence of foam on the top) was shown by all the tubes mixed vigorously before centrifugation (Fig. 1 A, B and C). Moreover the serum tubes from vigorous mixing procedure shows a "blood ring" on the tube top after stopper removal (Fig. 1 D).CONCLUSION: Our results drop out a paradigm suggesting that the incorrect primary blood tubes mixing promotes laboratory variability. We suggest that similar evaluation should be done using other brands of vacuum tubes by each laboratory manager.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/500151
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