Sequential recognition of invading microbes and rapid induction of plant immune responses comprise at least two recognition systems. Early basal defenses are initiated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the plasma membrane. Pathogens produce effectors to suppress defense, but plants, in turn, can sense such effectors by dominant plant resistance (R) gene products. Plant PRRs and R proteins modulate signaling networks for defense responses that rely on rapid production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) mainly mediates biological function through chemical reactions between locally controlled accumulation of RNS and proteins leading to potential alteration of protein function. Many proteins specifically regulated by NO and participating in signaling during plant defense response have been identified, highlighting the physiological relevance of these modifications in plant immunity. ROS functions independently or in cooperation with NO during defense, modulating the RNS signaling functions through the entire process. This review provides an overview of current knowledge about regulatory mechanisms for NO burst and signaling, and crosstalk with ROS in response to pathogen attack.

Nitric Oxide as a Mediator for Defense Responses.

BELLIN, Diana;DELLEDONNE, Massimo;
2012

Abstract

Sequential recognition of invading microbes and rapid induction of plant immune responses comprise at least two recognition systems. Early basal defenses are initiated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the plasma membrane. Pathogens produce effectors to suppress defense, but plants, in turn, can sense such effectors by dominant plant resistance (R) gene products. Plant PRRs and R proteins modulate signaling networks for defense responses that rely on rapid production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) mainly mediates biological function through chemical reactions between locally controlled accumulation of RNS and proteins leading to potential alteration of protein function. Many proteins specifically regulated by NO and participating in signaling during plant defense response have been identified, highlighting the physiological relevance of these modifications in plant immunity. ROS functions independently or in cooperation with NO during defense, modulating the RNS signaling functions through the entire process. This review provides an overview of current knowledge about regulatory mechanisms for NO burst and signaling, and crosstalk with ROS in response to pathogen attack.
nitric oxide; plant pathogen resistance; signaling
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/478774
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