The migration of leukocytes from the bloodstream into the central nervous system (CNS) is a key event in the pathogenesis of inflammatory neurological diseases and typically involves the movement of cells through the endothelium of post-capillary venules, which contains intercellular tight junctions. Leukocyte trafficking has predominantly been studied in animal models of multiple sclerosis, stroke and infection. However, recent evidence suggests that immune cells and inflammation mechanisms play an unexpected role in other neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. Imaging leukocyte trafficking in the CNS can be achieved by epifluorescence intravital microscopy (IVM) and multiphoton microscopy. Epifluorescence IVM is ideal for the investigation of leukocyte–endothelial interactions, particularly tethering and rolling, signal transduction pathways controlling integrin activation, slow rolling, arrest and adhesion strengthening in CNS vessels. Multiphoton microscopy is more suitable for the investigation of intraluminal crawling, transmigration and motility inside CNS parenchyma. The mechanisms of leukocyte trafficking in the CNS are not well understood but the use of in vivo imaging techniques to unravel the underlying regulatory pathways will provide insight into the mechanisms of brain damage and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss recent work in this field, highlighting the development and use of in vivo imaging to investigate leukocyte recruitment in the CNS.

Use of imaging to study leukocyte trafficking in the central nervous system

ZENARO, Elena;ROSSI, Barbara;CONSTANTIN, Gabriela
2013

Abstract

The migration of leukocytes from the bloodstream into the central nervous system (CNS) is a key event in the pathogenesis of inflammatory neurological diseases and typically involves the movement of cells through the endothelium of post-capillary venules, which contains intercellular tight junctions. Leukocyte trafficking has predominantly been studied in animal models of multiple sclerosis, stroke and infection. However, recent evidence suggests that immune cells and inflammation mechanisms play an unexpected role in other neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. Imaging leukocyte trafficking in the CNS can be achieved by epifluorescence intravital microscopy (IVM) and multiphoton microscopy. Epifluorescence IVM is ideal for the investigation of leukocyte–endothelial interactions, particularly tethering and rolling, signal transduction pathways controlling integrin activation, slow rolling, arrest and adhesion strengthening in CNS vessels. Multiphoton microscopy is more suitable for the investigation of intraluminal crawling, transmigration and motility inside CNS parenchyma. The mechanisms of leukocyte trafficking in the CNS are not well understood but the use of in vivo imaging techniques to unravel the underlying regulatory pathways will provide insight into the mechanisms of brain damage and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss recent work in this field, highlighting the development and use of in vivo imaging to investigate leukocyte recruitment in the CNS.
leukocyte trafficking; intravital microscopy; two-photon laser scanning microscopy; central nervous system
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/477616
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