To evaluate the adequacy of laparoscopic ureterolysis as a primary treatment option for ureteral endometriosis.Prospective collaborative cohort study.Gynecologic departments of three university hospitals.Women with ureteral endometriosis exhibiting moderate-to-severe hydronephrosis on preoperative intravenous pyelography.Laparoscopic ureterolysis.Cure rate, disesase recurrence.Thirty-three patients underwent laparoscopic ureterolysis during the study period. Bilateral involvement of ureters was found in 4 (12.1\%) cases. In women with unilateral lesions the left ureter was more frequently affected (24/29 vs. 5/29). Ureteral involvement was associated with uterosacral ligaments endometriosis in 65.5\% (22/34) of cases. No inadvertent ureteral injuries occurred during ureterolysis. A partial wall resection of the ureter was necessary in one case and a segmental ureteral resection with vescicopsoas hitch was required in a women with intrinsic ureteral endometriosis. The median (range) follow-up time was 16 months (range: 3-53 months). Thirty-two patients (96.7\%) had a patent ureter on the 3-month postoperative intravenous pyelography. The recurrence rate of ureteral lesions was 12.1\% (4/33).Our findings suggest that a conservative laparoscopic approach is an effective treatment option in most patients with ureteral endometriosis exhibiting moderate-to-severe hydronephrosis.
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