Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory condition of the pancreas, which might extend to local and distant extrapancreatic tissues. The global incidence varies between 17.5 and 73.4 cases per 100,000 and the pathogenesis recognizes alcohol exposure and biliary tract disease as the leading causes, ahead of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drugs and abdominal trauma. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is substantially based on a combination of clinical signs and symptoms, imaging techniques and laboratory investigations. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the reference standard for the diagnosis, as well as for establishing disease severity. The assessment of pancreatic enzymes, early released from necrotic tissue, is the cornerstone of laboratory diagnosis in this clinical setting. Although there is no single test that shows optimal diagnostic accuracy, most current guidelines and recommendations indicate that lipase should be preferred over total and pancreatic amylase. Although a definitive diagnostic threshold cannot be identified, cut-offs comprised between ≥ 2 and ≥ 4 times the upper limit of the reference interval are preferable. The combination of amylase and lipase has been discouraged as although it marginally improves the diagnostic efficiency of either marker alone, it increases the cost of investigation. Some interesting biomarkers have been also suggested (e.g., serum and urinary trypsinogen-1, -2 and -3, phospholipase A2, pancreatic elastase, procalcitonin, trypsinogen activated protein, activation peptide of carboxypeptidase B, trypsin-2-alpha1 antitrypsin complex and circulating DNA), but none of them has found widespread application for a variety of reasons, including the inferior diagnostic accuracy when compared with the traditional enzymes, the use of cumbersome techniques, or their recent discovery. The promising results of recent proteomics studies showed that this innovative technique might allow the identification of changes characterizing pancreatic tissue injury, thus highlighting new potential biomarkers of acute pancreatitis.

Laboratory diagnosis of acute pancreatitis: in search of the Holy Grail.

LIPPI, Giuseppe;
2012-01-01

Abstract

Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory condition of the pancreas, which might extend to local and distant extrapancreatic tissues. The global incidence varies between 17.5 and 73.4 cases per 100,000 and the pathogenesis recognizes alcohol exposure and biliary tract disease as the leading causes, ahead of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drugs and abdominal trauma. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is substantially based on a combination of clinical signs and symptoms, imaging techniques and laboratory investigations. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the reference standard for the diagnosis, as well as for establishing disease severity. The assessment of pancreatic enzymes, early released from necrotic tissue, is the cornerstone of laboratory diagnosis in this clinical setting. Although there is no single test that shows optimal diagnostic accuracy, most current guidelines and recommendations indicate that lipase should be preferred over total and pancreatic amylase. Although a definitive diagnostic threshold cannot be identified, cut-offs comprised between ≥ 2 and ≥ 4 times the upper limit of the reference interval are preferable. The combination of amylase and lipase has been discouraged as although it marginally improves the diagnostic efficiency of either marker alone, it increases the cost of investigation. Some interesting biomarkers have been also suggested (e.g., serum and urinary trypsinogen-1, -2 and -3, phospholipase A2, pancreatic elastase, procalcitonin, trypsinogen activated protein, activation peptide of carboxypeptidase B, trypsin-2-alpha1 antitrypsin complex and circulating DNA), but none of them has found widespread application for a variety of reasons, including the inferior diagnostic accuracy when compared with the traditional enzymes, the use of cumbersome techniques, or their recent discovery. The promising results of recent proteomics studies showed that this innovative technique might allow the identification of changes characterizing pancreatic tissue injury, thus highlighting new potential biomarkers of acute pancreatitis.
2012
acute pancreatitis; biomarkers; diangosis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/473415
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