Pseudomonas putida is a saprophytic bacterium with remarkable environmental adaptability and the capacity to tolerate high concentrations of heavy metals. The strain P. putida-Cd001 was isolated from soil contaminated with Cd, Zn and Pb. Membrane-associated and cytosolic proteomes were analyzed to identify proteins whose expression was modulated in response to 250 μM CdSO(4). We identified 44 protein spots in the membrane and 21 in the cytosolic fraction differentially expressed in Cd-treated samples compared to untreated controls. Outer membrane porins from the OprD and OprI families were less abundant in bacteria exposed to Cd, whereas those from the OprF and OprL, OprH and OprB families were more abundant, reflecting the increased need to acquire energy sources, the need to maintain membrane integrity and the process of adaptation. Components of the efflux system, such as the CzcB subunit of the CBA system, were also induced by Cd. Analysis of the cytosolic proteome revealed that proteins involved in protein synthesis, degradation and folding were induced along with enzymes that combat oxidative stress, showing that the entire bacterial proteome is modulated by heavy metal exposure. This analysis provides new insights into the adaptation mechanisms used by P. putida-Cd001 to survive in Cd-polluted environments.
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