Cyclosporin (CsA) and azathioprine (AZA) are useful immunosuppressive drugs in the management of kidney and liver transplant recipients. We investigated urinary mutagenicity in three groups of kidney transplant recipients after different immunosuppressive protocols. Urinary mutagenicity was detected in a base-pair strain, E. coli WP2uvrA, in a liquid incubation assay. No mutagenic activity was detected in the urines of patients treated with CsA (4.5 mg/kg); 85% of the urines in the second group treated with AZA (1.26 mg/kg) showed high mutagenic activity, whereas mutagenic activity was found in 40% of the urines of subjects treated with CsA and AZA (3.89 mg/kg + 1.15 mg/kg). These data suggest that immunosuppressive therapy with AZA carriers a high risk of urinary mutagenicity, while immunosuppressive combined treatment with CsA and AZA significantly reduces this risk.
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