AbstractBackground: Although oxidative stress plays a major role in endothelial dysfunction (ED), the role of glutathione (GSH), ofnuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and of related antioxidant genes (ARE) are yet unknown. In this study we combined an in vivo with an in vitro model to assess whether cigarette smoking affects flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), GSHconcentrations and the Nrf2/ARE pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).Methods and Results: 52 healthy subjects (26 non-smokers and 26 heavy smokers) were enrolled in this study. In smokerswe demonstrated increased oxidative stress, i.e., reduced concentrations of GSH and increased concentrations of oxidationproducts of the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (oxPAPC) in serum and inperipheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), used as in vivo surrogates of endothelial cells. Moreover we showedimpairment of FMD in smokers and a positive correlation with the concentration of GSH in PBMC of all subjects. In HUVECsexposed to smokers’ serum but not to non-smokers’ serum we found that oxidative stress increased, whereas nitric oxideand GSH concentrations decreased; interestingly the expression of Nrf2, of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and of glutamatecysteineligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit, the rate-limiting step of synthesis of GSH, was decreased. To test the hypothesisthat the increased oxidative stress in smokers may have a causal role in the repression of Nrf2/ARE pathway, we exposedHUVECs to increasing concentrations of oxPAPC and found that at the highest concentration (similar to that found insmokers’ serum) the expression of Nrf2/ARE pathway was reduced. The knockdown of Nrf2 was associated to a significantreduction of HO-1 and GCLC expression induced by oxPAPC in ECs.Conclusions: In young smokers with ED a novel further consequence of increased oxidative stress is a repression of Nrf2/ARE pathway leading to GSH depletion.

Serum oxidative stress-induced repression of Nrf2 and GSH depletion: a mechanism potentially involved in endothelial dysfunction of young smokers

FRATTA PASINI, Anna Maria;ALBIERO, Anna;STRANIERI, Chiara;PASINI, Andrea;MOZZINI, Chiara;COMINACINI, Luciano;GARBIN, Ulisse
2012

Abstract

AbstractBackground: Although oxidative stress plays a major role in endothelial dysfunction (ED), the role of glutathione (GSH), ofnuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and of related antioxidant genes (ARE) are yet unknown. In this study we combined an in vivo with an in vitro model to assess whether cigarette smoking affects flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), GSHconcentrations and the Nrf2/ARE pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).Methods and Results: 52 healthy subjects (26 non-smokers and 26 heavy smokers) were enrolled in this study. In smokerswe demonstrated increased oxidative stress, i.e., reduced concentrations of GSH and increased concentrations of oxidationproducts of the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (oxPAPC) in serum and inperipheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), used as in vivo surrogates of endothelial cells. Moreover we showedimpairment of FMD in smokers and a positive correlation with the concentration of GSH in PBMC of all subjects. In HUVECsexposed to smokers’ serum but not to non-smokers’ serum we found that oxidative stress increased, whereas nitric oxideand GSH concentrations decreased; interestingly the expression of Nrf2, of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and of glutamatecysteineligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit, the rate-limiting step of synthesis of GSH, was decreased. To test the hypothesisthat the increased oxidative stress in smokers may have a causal role in the repression of Nrf2/ARE pathway, we exposedHUVECs to increasing concentrations of oxPAPC and found that at the highest concentration (similar to that found insmokers’ serum) the expression of Nrf2/ARE pathway was reduced. The knockdown of Nrf2 was associated to a significantreduction of HO-1 and GCLC expression induced by oxPAPC in ECs.Conclusions: In young smokers with ED a novel further consequence of increased oxidative stress is a repression of Nrf2/ARE pathway leading to GSH depletion.
endothelial dysfunction; oxidative stress; GSH; Nrf2 pathway; young smokers
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/427560
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