Determining the efficiency of a swimming stroke is difficult because different "efficiencies" can be computed based on the partitioning of mechanical power output (W) into its useful and nonuseful components, as well as because of the difficulties in measuring the forces that a swimmer can exert in water. In this paper, overall efficiency (η(O) = W(TOT)/Ė, where W(TOT) is total mechanical power output, and Ė is overall metabolic power input) was calculated in 10 swimmers by means of a laboratory-based whole-body swimming ergometer, whereas propelling efficiency (η(P) = W(D)/W(TOT), where W(D) is the power to overcome drag) was estimated based on these values and on values of drag efficiency (η(D) = W(D)/Ė): η(P) = η(D)/η(O). The values of η(D) reported in the literature range from 0.03 to 0.09 (based on data for passive and active drag, respectively). η(O) was 0.28 ± 0.01, and η(P) was estimated to range from ∼0.10 (η(D) = 0.03) to 0.35 (η(D) = 0.09). Even if there are obvious limitations to exact simulation of the whole swimming stroke within the laboratory, these calculations suggest that the data reported in the literature for η(O) are probably underestimated, because not all components of W(TOT) can be measured accurately in this environment. Similarly, our estimations of η(P) suggest that the data reported in the literature are probably overestimated.

Mechanical and propelling efficiency in swimming derived from exercise using a laboratory-based whole-body swimming ergometer.

ZAMPARO, Paola;
2012

Abstract

Determining the efficiency of a swimming stroke is difficult because different "efficiencies" can be computed based on the partitioning of mechanical power output (W) into its useful and nonuseful components, as well as because of the difficulties in measuring the forces that a swimmer can exert in water. In this paper, overall efficiency (η(O) = W(TOT)/Ė, where W(TOT) is total mechanical power output, and Ė is overall metabolic power input) was calculated in 10 swimmers by means of a laboratory-based whole-body swimming ergometer, whereas propelling efficiency (η(P) = W(D)/W(TOT), where W(D) is the power to overcome drag) was estimated based on these values and on values of drag efficiency (η(D) = W(D)/Ė): η(P) = η(D)/η(O). The values of η(D) reported in the literature range from 0.03 to 0.09 (based on data for passive and active drag, respectively). η(O) was 0.28 ± 0.01, and η(P) was estimated to range from ∼0.10 (η(D) = 0.03) to 0.35 (η(D) = 0.09). Even if there are obvious limitations to exact simulation of the whole swimming stroke within the laboratory, these calculations suggest that the data reported in the literature for η(O) are probably underestimated, because not all components of W(TOT) can be measured accurately in this environment. Similarly, our estimations of η(P) suggest that the data reported in the literature are probably overestimated.
training machine; leg kick; arm pull; front crawl
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/427541
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