OBJECTIVES: To assess the prostate cancer detection rate and predictive factors for prostate cancer after transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided transperineal saturation re-biopsies of the prostate, using a 24-core scheme.PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 143 consecutive patients undergoing TRUS-guided transperineal saturation re-biopsy of the prostate using a 24-core scheme. The inclusion criteria were a previous negative biopsy and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of > or =10.0 ng/mL, or of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL with a free/total ratio of <20% or an abnormal digital rectal examination or previous high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) or atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP).RESULTS: The mean (sd) age of the patients was 66.5 (6.1) years and the median (interquartile range) PSA level was 9.0 (6.1-12.8) ng/mL. The number of previous biopsies was one in 59% of patients, two in 26% and three or more in 15%. We detected prostate cancer in 26%, ASAP in 5.6% and HGPIN in 2.1%. The cancer detection rate was 47%, 25.5% and 14% for prostate volumes of <40, 40-60 and > or =60 mL, respectively (P = 0.002). On a multivariate analysis the total prostate volume (40-60 vs <40 mL, hazard ratio 5.683; >60 vs <40 mL, hazard ratio 6.965; P = 0.01) was the only significant predictor of prostate cancer at saturation biopsy.CONCLUSIONS: TRUS-guided transperineal saturation re-biopsy of the prostate using a 24-core scheme resulted in a high cancer detection rate also in patients who had had two or more previous biopsies. The total prostate volume was the only predictor of prostate cancer.
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