Several drugs have been shown to produce an adverse affect on kidneys, mainly when exposure occurred during active nephrogenesis (pregnancy or prematurity). Several experimental studies on drug-related renal injury have been done on animal models. Observational reports on early drug-related nephrotoxicity in humans are increasing. The investigations regard nephrotoxicity from antibiotics (particularly aminoglycosides), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antifungins. Few reports have been specifically on the long-term effects on kidneys of drugs given to newborns during active nephrogenesis. Most observations were targeted to investigate long-term renal effects of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Nephrotoxic medication taken during fetal life and during postnatal nephrogenesis could interfere with nephron generation contributing to a particular magnitude of damage. Such adjunctive damage could further increase the risk of renal failure in the adulthood of children born prematurely.
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