Aim - To investigate the relation between medication-related factors and adherence in people with schizophrenia in outpatient treatment Methods - The sample comprised 409 outpatients (ICD- 10 diagnosis of schizophrenia) with clinician-rated instability in four European cities (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Verona. Italy, Leipzig, Germany; London, Great Britain) Adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Questionnaire (patient perspective), and the Clinician Rating Scale (clinician perspective). Examined medication-related factors were type (atypical vs typical), application (oral vs. depot), daily dose frequency of antipsychotic medication (Medication History Scale), number of side effects (Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale), and patient attitudes toward medication (Drug Attitude Inventory) Multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of adherence by medication-related factors Results - Adherence, as rated by patient and clinician, was predicted by patient attitude towards medication, but was unrelated to type of drug. formulation or side effects of antipsychotic medication A high daily dose frequency was associated with better adherence. but only when rated by the patient. Conclusions - In order to improve adherence there is a need to seriously consider and attempt to improve patient attitude toward medication. However, type of antipsychotic and other medication-related factors may not be as closely related to adherence as it has often been suggested
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