Background/Aims: To explore the possibility that the preventive effect of gabexate mesilate on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related acute pancreatitis may be mediated by its modulation of acute phase proteins. Methodology: Thirty consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were randomly assigned to receive 1g of gabexate mesilate (13 patients) or a placebo (17 patients) by continuous i.v. infusion starting 30 minutes before the endoscopy session and continuing for 12 hours afterward. In all patients, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin 6 serum concentrations were determined before endoscopy and 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours afterward. Results: Interleukin 6 basal serum concentrations were not statistically different between patients who had been treated with gabexate mesilate and those who had received the placebo (P=0.279), whereas C-reactive protein (P=0.033) and serum amyloid A (P=0.022) basal values were significantly lower in the gabexate mesilate group than in the placebo group. Compared to basal values, serum interleukin 6 concentrations significantly increased at 4 (P=0.048) and at 8 (P=0.025) hours; the increase of serum interleukin 6 concentrations was not significant at 12 (P=0.092), but became significant at 24 (P=0.025) hours. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A serum concentrations increased significantly only at 12 (P=0.001, P=0.012, respectively) and 24 (P<0.001, P=0.013, respectively) hours. The modifications of serum concentrations of interleukin 6, C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were not significantly different between the gabexate mesilate and the placebo groups. Conclusions: Gabexate mesilate does not affect serum concentrations of acute phase proteins after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography examination and it is able to prevent acute pancreatitis related to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography via a different mechanism than that explored in this study.
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