Our understanding of how genotype determines phenotype in primary dystonia is limited. Familial young-onset primary dystonia is commonly due to the DYT1 gene mutation. A critical question, given the 30\% penetrance of clinical symptoms in DYT1 mutation carriers, is why the same genotype leads to differential clinical expression and whether non-DYT1 adult-onset primary dystonia, with and without family history share pathophysiological mechanisms with DYT1 dystonia. This study examines the relationship between dystonic phenotype and the DYT1 gene mutation by monitoring whole brain structure using voxel-based morphometry. We acquired magnetic resonance imaging data of symptomatic and asymptomatic DYT1 mutation carriers, of non-DYT1 primary dystonia, with and without family history and control subjects with normal DYT1 alleles. By crossing the factors genotype and phenotype we demonstrate a significant interaction in terms of brain anatomy confined to the basal ganglia bilaterally. The explanation for this effect differs according to both gene and dystonia status: non-DYT1 adult-onset dystonia patients and asymptomatic DYT1 carriers have significantly larger basal ganglia compared to healthy subjects and symptomatic DYT1 mutation carriers. There is a significant negative correlation between severity of dystonia and basal ganglia size in DYT1 mutation carriers. We propose differential pathophysiological and compensatory mechanisms lead to brain structure changes in non-DYT1 primary adult-onset dystonias and DYT1 gene carriers. Given the range of age of onset, there may be differential genetic modulation of brain development that in turn determines clinical expression. Alternatively, a DYT1 gene dependent primary defect of motor circuit development may lead to stress-induced remodelling of the basal ganglia and hence dystonia.
|Titolo:||Genotype-phenotype interactions in primary dystonias revealed by differential changes in brain structure.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|