The paper evaluated caries prevalence in a sample of Italian children aged 4 and the possible correlation between the disease and the premature birth. A clinical evaluation on 5,543 children (50.8% males and 49.2% females) was performed and caries prevalence was assessed using the dfs index (number of decayed or filled tooth’s surfaces). An ad hoc questionnaire, regarding the premature birth and other items, was proposed to parents. Caries Experience (percentage of children with 1 or more decayed or filled teeth) was 21.92%. 10% of the examined sample was prematurely born (< 37th week pregnancy). Caries experience was 27.1% in children born pre-term and 21.4% in the others (p<0.05). The premature birth and the intake of sugar beverages were positively correlated in statistically way to the caries prevalence.
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