Two cases of T acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) with an identical t(4:11)(q2l:p15) translocation were identified within a prospective study on the biological and clinical features of adult ALL patients enrolled into the therapeutic protocol ALL0496 of the GIMEMA Italian Group. In both cases, the molecular characterization showed an involvement of the NUP98 gene on 11p15 which rearranges with the RAP1GDS1 gene on 4q21. The morphological and immunological features of the leukaemic cells, as well as the clinical behaviour and response to induction therapy; were the same in both patients. Based on the available data, the t(4:ll)(q21:p15) translocation involving the NUP98- RAP1GDS1 fusion gene emerges as a new highly specific genetic abnormality that characterizes a subset of T-ALL.
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