High fields magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments on humans have been historically limited by the so called "penetration effect" of B1 and by the power deposition in living tissues. The first effect refers to the non-homogeneous value of B1 field inside the sample (important when the wavelength of the r.f. field approaches the dimension of the sample i.e. when the Larmor frequency increase above 10-20 MHz) and the second refers to the increase in the power deposition in tissues when the Larmor frequency increases. Both phenomena are less important in animals, because of the smaller dimensions of animal bodies and the less stringent safety requirements. As a result, animal instruments were developed at high fields earlier compared with human ones. Today the great majority of imagers designed for animal studies operate at fields of 4.7 T or higher. The main advantages in high fields stand in higher signal to noise ratio (and consequent increase in space resolution or decrease in acquisition time) and higher frequency separation between metabolite peaks in in vivo spectroscopy. Disadvantages are in the higher cost of magnets and electronics, in shortening of T2 relaxation time, paralleled by a lengthening in T1 relaxation time, and in greater importance of susceptibility and chemical shift artefacts. Recent developments in applications of MRI (and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRS) in preclinical studies, as for example functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), microscopy, diffusion-weighted (DW) spectroscopy and molecular imaging, pose increasing requirements to technical aspects of MRI instruments (increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), space resolution and chemical shift) and consequently push toward higher magnetic fields. In this paper the above mentioned developments are reviewed and discussed.

High field MRI in preclinical research

MARZOLA, Pasquina;OSCULATI, Francesco;SBARBATI, Andrea
2003-01-01

Abstract

High fields magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments on humans have been historically limited by the so called "penetration effect" of B1 and by the power deposition in living tissues. The first effect refers to the non-homogeneous value of B1 field inside the sample (important when the wavelength of the r.f. field approaches the dimension of the sample i.e. when the Larmor frequency increase above 10-20 MHz) and the second refers to the increase in the power deposition in tissues when the Larmor frequency increases. Both phenomena are less important in animals, because of the smaller dimensions of animal bodies and the less stringent safety requirements. As a result, animal instruments were developed at high fields earlier compared with human ones. Today the great majority of imagers designed for animal studies operate at fields of 4.7 T or higher. The main advantages in high fields stand in higher signal to noise ratio (and consequent increase in space resolution or decrease in acquisition time) and higher frequency separation between metabolite peaks in in vivo spectroscopy. Disadvantages are in the higher cost of magnets and electronics, in shortening of T2 relaxation time, paralleled by a lengthening in T1 relaxation time, and in greater importance of susceptibility and chemical shift artefacts. Recent developments in applications of MRI (and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRS) in preclinical studies, as for example functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), microscopy, diffusion-weighted (DW) spectroscopy and molecular imaging, pose increasing requirements to technical aspects of MRI instruments (increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), space resolution and chemical shift) and consequently push toward higher magnetic fields. In this paper the above mentioned developments are reviewed and discussed.
MRI; High Field; preclinical studies
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/304475
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