Introduction: Diazepam is a well-known psychoactive drug widely used worldwide for the treatment of anxiety, seizures, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, sleeplessness, agitation, and pre/post-operative sedation. It is part of the benzodiazepine family, substances known to primarily act by binding and enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptors. The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of short and medium-term diazepam exposures on neurotransmitters measured through targeted metabolomics using a zebrafish embryo model.Methods: Short-term (2.5 h) and medium-term (96 h) exposures to diazepam were performed at drug concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, 16, and 160 mu g/L. Intervention groups were compared with a vehicle control group. Each group consisted of 20 zebrafish eggs/larvae. Metabolites related with neurotransmission were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).Results: Thirty-six compounds were quantified. Significantly increased tryptophan and serotonin concentrations were found in the intervention groups receiving higher doses of diazepam in 2.5 h exposure (p < 0.05 control versus intervention groups). Tyrosine concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) at higher concentrations in 2.5 h exposure, but lower (p < 0.05) at higher concentrations in 96 h exposure. Both phenylalanine and aspartic acid concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) at higher doses in 2.5 h and 96 h exposure.Conclusions: Short- and medium-term exposures to diazepam induce dose- and time-dependent metabolomic alterations associated with the semtonergic, dopaminergic/adrenergic, and aspartic acid neurotransmitter systems in zebrafish.

Short- and medium-term exposures of diazepam induce metabolomic alterations associated with the serotonergic, dopaminergic, adrenergic and aspartic acid neurotransmitter systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos/larvae

Tagliaro, Franco;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: Diazepam is a well-known psychoactive drug widely used worldwide for the treatment of anxiety, seizures, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, sleeplessness, agitation, and pre/post-operative sedation. It is part of the benzodiazepine family, substances known to primarily act by binding and enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptors. The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of short and medium-term diazepam exposures on neurotransmitters measured through targeted metabolomics using a zebrafish embryo model.Methods: Short-term (2.5 h) and medium-term (96 h) exposures to diazepam were performed at drug concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, 16, and 160 mu g/L. Intervention groups were compared with a vehicle control group. Each group consisted of 20 zebrafish eggs/larvae. Metabolites related with neurotransmission were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).Results: Thirty-six compounds were quantified. Significantly increased tryptophan and serotonin concentrations were found in the intervention groups receiving higher doses of diazepam in 2.5 h exposure (p < 0.05 control versus intervention groups). Tyrosine concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) at higher concentrations in 2.5 h exposure, but lower (p < 0.05) at higher concentrations in 96 h exposure. Both phenylalanine and aspartic acid concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) at higher doses in 2.5 h and 96 h exposure.Conclusions: Short- and medium-term exposures to diazepam induce dose- and time-dependent metabolomic alterations associated with the semtonergic, dopaminergic/adrenergic, and aspartic acid neurotransmitter systems in zebrafish.
2021
Benzodiazepines
Metabolites
Metabolomics
Neurotransmission
Omics
Zebrafish
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1127573
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