Background: Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive neuromuscular disease affecting children. It is caused by the mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene resulting in lower motor neuron (MN) degeneration followed by motor impairment, progressive skeletal muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. In addition to the already existing therapies, a possible combinatorial strategy could be represented by the use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) that can be obtained easily and in large amounts from adipose tissue. Their efficacy seems to be correlated to their paracrine activity and the production of soluble factors released through extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are important mediators of intercellular communication with a diameter between 30 and 100 nm. Their use in other neurodegenerative disorders showed a neuroprotective effect thanks to the release of their content, especially proteins, miRNAs and mRNAs. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the effect of EVs isolated from ASCs (ASC-EVs) in the SMNΔ7 mice, a severe SMA model. With this purpose, we performed two administrations of ASC-EVs (0.5 µg) in SMA pups via intracerebroventricular injections at post-natal day 3 (P3) and P6. We then assessed the treatment efficacy by behavioural test from P2 to P10 and histological analyses at P10. Results: The results showed positive effects of ASC-EVs on the disease progression, with improved motor performance and a significant delay in spinal MN degeneration of treated animals. ASC-EVs could also reduce the apoptotic activation (cleaved Caspase-3) and modulate the neuroinflammation with an observed decreased glial activation in lumbar spinal cord, while at peripheral level ASC-EVs could only partially limit the muscular atrophy and fiber denervation. Conclusions: Our results could encourage the use of ASC-EVs as a therapeutic combinatorial treatment for SMA, bypassing the controversial use of stem cells.

Administration of adipose-derived stem cells extracellular vesicles in a murine model of spinal muscular atrophy: effects of a new potential therapeutic strategy

Virla, Federica;Turano, Ermanna;Scambi, Ilaria;Schiaffino, Lorenzo;Mariotti, Raffaella
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive neuromuscular disease affecting children. It is caused by the mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene resulting in lower motor neuron (MN) degeneration followed by motor impairment, progressive skeletal muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. In addition to the already existing therapies, a possible combinatorial strategy could be represented by the use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) that can be obtained easily and in large amounts from adipose tissue. Their efficacy seems to be correlated to their paracrine activity and the production of soluble factors released through extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are important mediators of intercellular communication with a diameter between 30 and 100 nm. Their use in other neurodegenerative disorders showed a neuroprotective effect thanks to the release of their content, especially proteins, miRNAs and mRNAs. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the effect of EVs isolated from ASCs (ASC-EVs) in the SMNΔ7 mice, a severe SMA model. With this purpose, we performed two administrations of ASC-EVs (0.5 µg) in SMA pups via intracerebroventricular injections at post-natal day 3 (P3) and P6. We then assessed the treatment efficacy by behavioural test from P2 to P10 and histological analyses at P10. Results: The results showed positive effects of ASC-EVs on the disease progression, with improved motor performance and a significant delay in spinal MN degeneration of treated animals. ASC-EVs could also reduce the apoptotic activation (cleaved Caspase-3) and modulate the neuroinflammation with an observed decreased glial activation in lumbar spinal cord, while at peripheral level ASC-EVs could only partially limit the muscular atrophy and fiber denervation. Conclusions: Our results could encourage the use of ASC-EVs as a therapeutic combinatorial treatment for SMA, bypassing the controversial use of stem cells.
2024
Adipose mesenchymal stem cells
Extracellular vesicles
Motor neuron disease
SMA
SMNΔ7
Stem cells
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1123587
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