Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the most common muscle disease of older people and is clinically characterized by slowly progressive asymmetrical muscle weakness, predominantly affecting the quadriceps, deep finger flexors, and foot extensors. At present, there are no enduring treatments for this relentless disease that eventually leads to severe disability and wheelchair dependency. Although sIBM is considered a rare muscle disorder, its prevalence is certainly higher as the disease is often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. The histopathological phenotype of sIBM muscle biopsy includes muscle fiber degeneration and endomysial lymphocytic infiltrates that mainly consist of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells surrounding nonnecrotic muscle fibers expressing MHCI. Muscle fiber degeneration is characterized by vacuolization and the accumulation of congophilic misfolded multi-protein aggregates, mainly in their non-vacuolated cytoplasm. Many players have been identified in sIBM pathogenesis, including environmental factors, autoimmunity, abnormalities of protein transcription and processing, the accumulation of several toxic proteins, the impairment of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, oxidative and nitrative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, myonuclear degeneration, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Aging has also been proposed as a contributor to the disease. However, the interplay between these processes and the primary event that leads to the coexistence of autoimmune and degenerative changes is still under debate. Here, we outline our current understanding of disease pathogenesis, focusing on degenerative mechanisms, and discuss the possible involvement of aging.

Sporadic inclusion body myositis at the crossroads between muscle degeneration, inflammation, and aging

Guglielmi, Valeria;Tonin, Paola;Vattemi, Gaetano
2024-01-01

Abstract

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the most common muscle disease of older people and is clinically characterized by slowly progressive asymmetrical muscle weakness, predominantly affecting the quadriceps, deep finger flexors, and foot extensors. At present, there are no enduring treatments for this relentless disease that eventually leads to severe disability and wheelchair dependency. Although sIBM is considered a rare muscle disorder, its prevalence is certainly higher as the disease is often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. The histopathological phenotype of sIBM muscle biopsy includes muscle fiber degeneration and endomysial lymphocytic infiltrates that mainly consist of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells surrounding nonnecrotic muscle fibers expressing MHCI. Muscle fiber degeneration is characterized by vacuolization and the accumulation of congophilic misfolded multi-protein aggregates, mainly in their non-vacuolated cytoplasm. Many players have been identified in sIBM pathogenesis, including environmental factors, autoimmunity, abnormalities of protein transcription and processing, the accumulation of several toxic proteins, the impairment of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, oxidative and nitrative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, myonuclear degeneration, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Aging has also been proposed as a contributor to the disease. However, the interplay between these processes and the primary event that leads to the coexistence of autoimmune and degenerative changes is still under debate. Here, we outline our current understanding of disease pathogenesis, focusing on degenerative mechanisms, and discuss the possible involvement of aging.
2024
aging
inflammaging
inflammation
muscle fiber degeneration
protein aggregation
sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1121807
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