Aim: Force expression is characterized by an interplay of biological and molecular determinants that are expected to differentiate males and females in terms of maximal performance. These include muscle characteristics (muscle size, fiber type, contractility), neuromuscular regulation (central and peripheral factors of force expression), and individual genetic factors (miRNAs and gene/protein expression). This research aims to comprehensively assess these physiological variables and their role as determinants of maximal force difference between sexes. Methods: Experimental evaluations include neuromuscular components of isometric contraction, intrinsic muscle characteristics (proteins and fiber type), and some biomarkers associated with muscle function (circulating miRNAs and gut microbiome) in 12 young and healthy males and 12 females. Results: Male strength superiority appears to stem primarily from muscle size while muscle fiber-type distribution plays a crucial role in contractile properties. Moderate-to-strong pooled correlations between these muscle parameters were established with specific circulating miRNAs, as well as muscle and plasma proteins. Conclusion: Muscle size is crucial in explaining the differences in maximal voluntary isometric force generation between males and females with similar fiber type distribution. Potential physiological mechanisms are seen from associations between maximal force, skeletal muscle contractile properties, and biological markers.

Sex differences in neuromuscular and biological determinants of isometric maximal force

Giuriato, Gaia;Romanelli, Maria Grazia;Vernillo, Gianluca;Pedrinolla, Anna;Locatelli, Elena;Andani, Mehran Emadi;Laginestra, Fabio Giuseppe;Barbi, Chiara;Milanese, Chiara;Orlandi, Elisa;De Simone, Tonia;Fochi, Stefania;Patuzzo, Cristina;Malerba, Giovanni;Fabene, Paolo;Donadelli, Massimo;Schena, Federico;Venturelli, Massimo
2024-01-01

Abstract

Aim: Force expression is characterized by an interplay of biological and molecular determinants that are expected to differentiate males and females in terms of maximal performance. These include muscle characteristics (muscle size, fiber type, contractility), neuromuscular regulation (central and peripheral factors of force expression), and individual genetic factors (miRNAs and gene/protein expression). This research aims to comprehensively assess these physiological variables and their role as determinants of maximal force difference between sexes. Methods: Experimental evaluations include neuromuscular components of isometric contraction, intrinsic muscle characteristics (proteins and fiber type), and some biomarkers associated with muscle function (circulating miRNAs and gut microbiome) in 12 young and healthy males and 12 females. Results: Male strength superiority appears to stem primarily from muscle size while muscle fiber-type distribution plays a crucial role in contractile properties. Moderate-to-strong pooled correlations between these muscle parameters were established with specific circulating miRNAs, as well as muscle and plasma proteins. Conclusion: Muscle size is crucial in explaining the differences in maximal voluntary isometric force generation between males and females with similar fiber type distribution. Potential physiological mechanisms are seen from associations between maximal force, skeletal muscle contractile properties, and biological markers.
2024
gut microbiota
miRNA
muscle force
muscle proteins
neuromuscular determinants
sex differences
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1120155
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact