Nitrite is a compound used as a food additive for its preservative action and coloring capability, as well as an industrial agent for its antifreezing action and for preventing corrosion, and it is also used as a pharmaceutical in cyanide detoxification therapy. However, even recently, because of its high toxicity, it has been used as a murder and suicidal agent due to its affordability and ready availability. In this technical report, we describe an electrochemical paper-based device for selectively determining nitrite in complex biofluids, such as blood, cadaveric blood, vitreous humor, serum, plasma, and urine. The approach was validated in terms of the linearity of response, selectivity, and sensitivity, and the accuracy of the determination was verified by comparing the results with a chromatographic instrumental method. A linear response was observed in the micromolar range; the sensitivity of the method expressed as the limit of detection was 0.4 μM in buffer measurements. The simplicity of use, the portability of the device, and the performance shown make the approach suitable for detecting nitrite in complex biofluids, including contexts of forensic interest, such as murders or suicides in which nitrite is used as a toxic agent. Limits of detection of ca. 1, 2, 4, 5, 3, and 4 μM were obtained in vitreous humor, urine, serum and plasma, blood, and cadaveric blood, also highlighting a satisfactory accuracy comprised between 91 and 112%.

Technical Evaluation of a Paper-Based Electrochemical Strip to Measure Nitrite Ions in the Forensic Field

Giacomo Musile
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Nitrite is a compound used as a food additive for its preservative action and coloring capability, as well as an industrial agent for its antifreezing action and for preventing corrosion, and it is also used as a pharmaceutical in cyanide detoxification therapy. However, even recently, because of its high toxicity, it has been used as a murder and suicidal agent due to its affordability and ready availability. In this technical report, we describe an electrochemical paper-based device for selectively determining nitrite in complex biofluids, such as blood, cadaveric blood, vitreous humor, serum, plasma, and urine. The approach was validated in terms of the linearity of response, selectivity, and sensitivity, and the accuracy of the determination was verified by comparing the results with a chromatographic instrumental method. A linear response was observed in the micromolar range; the sensitivity of the method expressed as the limit of detection was 0.4 μM in buffer measurements. The simplicity of use, the portability of the device, and the performance shown make the approach suitable for detecting nitrite in complex biofluids, including contexts of forensic interest, such as murders or suicides in which nitrite is used as a toxic agent. Limits of detection of ca. 1, 2, 4, 5, 3, and 4 μM were obtained in vitreous humor, urine, serum and plasma, blood, and cadaveric blood, also highlighting a satisfactory accuracy comprised between 91 and 112%.
2023
paper-based devices; forensic toxicology; clinical toxicology; point-of-need (PON) devices; intoxication; nitrite
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1118808
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