: Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are particularly difficult to treat due to the high rate of antibiotic resistance. S. aureus also forms biofilms that reduce the effects of antibiotics and disinfectants. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are increasingly required. In this scenario, plant waste products represent a source of bioactive molecules. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the rice husk extract (RHE) on S. aureus clinical isolates. In a biofilm inhibition assay, high concentrations of RHE counteracted the formation of biofilm by S. aureus isolates, both methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA). The observation of the MRSA biofilm by confocal laser scanning microscopy using live/dead cell viability staining confirmed that the bacterial viability in the RHE-treated biofilm was reduced. However, the extract showed no or little biofilm disaggregation ability. An additive effect was observed when treating S. aureus with a combination of RHE and oxacillin/cefoxitin. In Galleria mellonella larvae treated with RHE, the extract showed no toxicity even at high concentrations. Our results support that the rice husk has antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties and could potentially be used in the future in topical solutions or on medical devices to prevent biofilm formation.
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