Lead (Pb) does not have any biological function in a human, and there is likely no safe level of Pb in the human body. The Pb exposure impacts are a global concern for their potential neurotoxic consequences. Despite decreasing both the environmental Pb levels and the average blood Pb levels in the survey populations, the lifetime redistribution from the tissues-stored Pb still poses neurotoxic risks from the low-level exposure in later life. The growing fetus and children hold their innate high-susceptible to these Pb-induced neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral effects. This article aims to evaluate the cumulative studies and insights on the topic of Pb neurotoxicology while assessing the emerging trends in the field. The Pb-induced neurochemical and neuro-immunological mechanisms are likely responsible for the high-level Pb exposure with the neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral impacts at the initial stages. Early-life Pb exposure can still produce neurodegenerative consequences in later life due to the altered epigenetic imprints and the ongoing endogenous Pb exposure. Several mechanisms contribute to the Pb-induced neurotoxic impacts, including the direct neurochemical effects, the induction of oxidative stress and inflammation through immunologic activations, and epigenetic alterations. Furthermore, the individual nutritional status, such as macro-, micro-, or antioxidant nutrients, can significantly influence the neurotoxic impacts even at low-level exposure to Pb. The prevention of early-life Pb exposure is, therefore, the critical determinant for alleviating various Pb-induced neurotoxic impacts across the different age groups.

Early-Life Lead Exposure: Risks and Neurotoxic Consequences

Chirumbolo, Salvatore;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Lead (Pb) does not have any biological function in a human, and there is likely no safe level of Pb in the human body. The Pb exposure impacts are a global concern for their potential neurotoxic consequences. Despite decreasing both the environmental Pb levels and the average blood Pb levels in the survey populations, the lifetime redistribution from the tissues-stored Pb still poses neurotoxic risks from the low-level exposure in later life. The growing fetus and children hold their innate high-susceptible to these Pb-induced neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral effects. This article aims to evaluate the cumulative studies and insights on the topic of Pb neurotoxicology while assessing the emerging trends in the field. The Pb-induced neurochemical and neuro-immunological mechanisms are likely responsible for the high-level Pb exposure with the neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral impacts at the initial stages. Early-life Pb exposure can still produce neurodegenerative consequences in later life due to the altered epigenetic imprints and the ongoing endogenous Pb exposure. Several mechanisms contribute to the Pb-induced neurotoxic impacts, including the direct neurochemical effects, the induction of oxidative stress and inflammation through immunologic activations, and epigenetic alterations. Furthermore, the individual nutritional status, such as macro-, micro-, or antioxidant nutrients, can significantly influence the neurotoxic impacts even at low-level exposure to Pb. The prevention of early-life Pb exposure is, therefore, the critical determinant for alleviating various Pb-induced neurotoxic impacts across the different age groups.
2024
epigenetic alterations
lead
low-level exposure
neurobehavioral
neurodegenerative
neurodevelopmental
neurotoxic
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1116848
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