Purpose: Heart rate (HR) is a widespread method to estimate oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2), exercise intensity, volume, and energy expenditure. Still, accuracy depends on lab tests or using indexes like HRnet and HRindex. This study addresses HR indexes' applicability in postmenopausal women (PMW), who constitute over 50% of the aging population and may have unique characteristics (e.g., heart size) affecting HR use. Methods: Fourteen PMW underwent a cycling ramp incremental test to establish the relationships between [Formula: see text]O2 (in MET) and absolute HR, HRnet, and HRindex. In a second group of ten PMW, population-specific and general equations were tested to predict MET and energy expenditure during six constant work exercises at various intensities. Pulmonary gas exchange and HR were continuously measured using a metabolic cart. Correlations, Bland-Altman analysis, and two-way RM-ANOVA were used to compare estimated and measured values. Results: Strong linear relationships between the three HR indexes and MET were found in Group 1. In Group 2, population-specific equations showed medium-to-high correlations, precision, and no significant biases when estimating MET and energy expenditure. HRnet and HRindex outperformed absolute HR in accuracy. General HR equations had similar correlations but exhibited larger biases and imprecision. Statistical differences between measured and estimated values were observed at all intensities with general equations. Conclusion: This investigation confirms the suitability of HR for estimating aerobic metabolism in one of the most significant aging populations. However, it emphasizes the importance of considering individual variability and developing population-specific models when utilizing HR to infer metabolism.
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