The ergogenic effect of pre-selected warm-up music with the tempo and loudness variations on the performance of combat sports' athletes as well as the difference between sexes is not well established. The present study aimed to assess the effects of listening to music with different tempos and loudness during warm-up on perceived exertion, physical enjoyment and physical performances in young taekwondo athletes. In a randomized study design, 20 taekwondo athletes (10 males, mean ± SD: age: 17.5 ± 0.7 years, taekwondo experience: ≥ 6 year) performed the taekwondo specific agility test (TSAT) and the 10s and multiple frequency speed of kick test (FSKT-10s and FSKT-mult) after warming-up with or without music. The music was played at high (140 beats·min-1) or very high (200 beats·min-1) tempo combined with low (60 dB) or high (80 dB) loudness, resulting in four experimental and control conditions. The ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES) were assessed after each condition. After normality, homogeneity and sphericity checks, two-way (or multivariate) analysis of variance and Bonferrroni (or Friedman's and Wilcoxon's test) post-hoc test were operated when necessary. For TSAT, 140 beats·min-1+80 dB induced better performance compared with 200 beats·min-1+80 dB, 200 beats·min-1+60 dB, control and the 140 beats·min-1+60 dB conditions. For FSKT-10s, 140 beats·min-1+80 dB condition induced higher performance compared with 200 beats·min-1+60 dB, 200 beats·min-1+80 dB, 140 beats·min-1+60 dB and the control conditions. For FSKT-mult, 140 beats·min-1+80 dB induced higher number of techniques compared with 200 beats·min-1+60 dB, 140 beats·min-1+60 dB, control and the 200 beats·min-1+80 dB conditions. Moreover, 140 beats·min-1+80 dB induced lower decrement index (DI) compared with the other conditions and lower DI in 140 beats·min-1+60 dB compared with 200 beats·min-1+80 dB and control conditions. Moreover, 140 beats·min-1+80 dB resulted in greater PACES scores compared with 200 beats·min-1+80 dB and control conditions. Better performance was found for males compared with females in TSAT, FSKT-10s and FSKT-mult (i.e., techniques' number), as well as lower DI and higher RPE post-FSKT-10s. Pre-selected warm-up music played at 140 beats·min-1 and 80 dB is an efficient strategy to enhance physical activity enjoyment and specific performances in taekwondo.

The effects of tempo and loudness variations during warm-up with music on perceived exertion, physical enjoyment and specific performances in male and female taekwondo athletes

Ardigò, Luca Paolo
2023-01-01

Abstract

The ergogenic effect of pre-selected warm-up music with the tempo and loudness variations on the performance of combat sports' athletes as well as the difference between sexes is not well established. The present study aimed to assess the effects of listening to music with different tempos and loudness during warm-up on perceived exertion, physical enjoyment and physical performances in young taekwondo athletes. In a randomized study design, 20 taekwondo athletes (10 males, mean ± SD: age: 17.5 ± 0.7 years, taekwondo experience: ≥ 6 year) performed the taekwondo specific agility test (TSAT) and the 10s and multiple frequency speed of kick test (FSKT-10s and FSKT-mult) after warming-up with or without music. The music was played at high (140 beats·min-1) or very high (200 beats·min-1) tempo combined with low (60 dB) or high (80 dB) loudness, resulting in four experimental and control conditions. The ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES) were assessed after each condition. After normality, homogeneity and sphericity checks, two-way (or multivariate) analysis of variance and Bonferrroni (or Friedman's and Wilcoxon's test) post-hoc test were operated when necessary. For TSAT, 140 beats·min-1+80 dB induced better performance compared with 200 beats·min-1+80 dB, 200 beats·min-1+60 dB, control and the 140 beats·min-1+60 dB conditions. For FSKT-10s, 140 beats·min-1+80 dB condition induced higher performance compared with 200 beats·min-1+60 dB, 200 beats·min-1+80 dB, 140 beats·min-1+60 dB and the control conditions. For FSKT-mult, 140 beats·min-1+80 dB induced higher number of techniques compared with 200 beats·min-1+60 dB, 140 beats·min-1+60 dB, control and the 200 beats·min-1+80 dB conditions. Moreover, 140 beats·min-1+80 dB induced lower decrement index (DI) compared with the other conditions and lower DI in 140 beats·min-1+60 dB compared with 200 beats·min-1+80 dB and control conditions. Moreover, 140 beats·min-1+80 dB resulted in greater PACES scores compared with 200 beats·min-1+80 dB and control conditions. Better performance was found for males compared with females in TSAT, FSKT-10s and FSKT-mult (i.e., techniques' number), as well as lower DI and higher RPE post-FSKT-10s. Pre-selected warm-up music played at 140 beats·min-1 and 80 dB is an efficient strategy to enhance physical activity enjoyment and specific performances in taekwondo.
2023
Music perception, Exercise, Bioacoustics, Sports, Running, Human performance, Physical activity, Music cognition
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
journal.pone.0284720.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: CC BY 4.0 publisher version
Tipologia: Versione dell'editore
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 685.33 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
685.33 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1115252
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 4
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact