Background and purpose: Lateral elbow pain represents a common musculoskeletal disorder, mostly non-specific and benign. In rare cases, it can be the first symptom of a severe disease such as Ewing's sarcoma (ES). ES is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor in the young population, with a high probability of an unfavourable prognosis. Case presentation: This case report presents the history of a young man presenting to the physical therapist with a diagnosis of "epicondylitis" in the right elbow, which was later revealed to be an aggressive ES of the ulna. Findings raising clinical doubts were (a) constant pain even at night and not dependent on load, (b) significant loss of function, (c) patient's young age, and (d) a palpable mass in the elbow. Results: After diagnosis, the patient received medical (chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery) and a rehabilitation program. After treatment, the patient improved elbow function, decreased disability and returned to social participation, maintaining positive outcomes at the 2-year follow-up. Discussion: In summary, this case report emphasizes the importance of differential diagnosis and screening for referral of red flags in physical therapy. Moreover, it describes the rehabilitation of a patient with ES, enriching the scientific literature in the field.
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