Context: A variety of models predicting postoperative renal function following surgery for nonmetastatic renal tumors have been reported, but their validity and clinical useful-ness have not been formally assessed.Objective: To summarize prediction models available for estimation of mid-to long-term (>3 mo) postoperative renal function after partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) for nonmetastatic renal masses that include only preoperative or modifiable intraoperative variables.Evidence acquisition: A systematic review of the English-language literature was con-ducted using the MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases from January 2000 to March 2022 according to the PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO ID: CRD42022303492). Risk of bias was assessed according to the Prediction Model Study Risk of Bias Assessment Tool.Evidence synthesis: Overall, 21 prediction models from 18 studies were included (nine for PN only; eight for RN only; four for PN or RN). Most studies relied on retrospective patient cohorts and had a high risk of bias and high concern regarding the overall appli-cability of the proposed model. Patient-, kidney-, surgery-, tumor-, and provider-related factors were included among the predictors in 95%, 86%, 100%, 61%, and 0% of the mod-els, respectively. All but one model included both patient age and preoperative renal function, while only a few took into account patient gender, race, comorbidities, tumor size/complexity, and surgical approach. There was significant heterogeneity in both the model building strategy and the performance metrics reported. Five studies reported external validation of six models, while three assessed their clinical usefulness using decision curve analysis.Conclusions: Several models are available for predicting postoperative renal function after kidney cancer surgery. Most of these are not ready for routine clinical practice, while a few have been externally validated and might be of value for patients and clinicians.Patient summary: We reviewed the tools available for predicting kidney function after partial or total surgical removal of a kidney for nonmetastatic cancer. Most of the models include patient and kidney characteristics such as age, comorbidities, and preoperative kidney function, and a few also include tumor characteristics and intraoperative vari-ables. Some models have been validated by additional research groups and appear promising for improving counseling for patients with nonmetastatic cancer who are can-didates for surgery.(c) 2022 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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