Laryngeal cancer is a very common tumor in the upper aero-digestive tract. Understanding its biological mechanisms has garnered significant interest in recent years. The development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) follows a multistep process starting from precursor lesions in the epithelium. Various risk factors have been associated with laryngeal tumors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, opium use, as well as infections with HPV and EBV viruses, among others. Cancer development involves multiple steps, and genetic alterations play a crucial role. Tumor suppressor genes can be inactivated, and proto-oncogenes may become activated through mechanisms like deletions, point mutations, promoter methylation, and gene amplification. Epigenetic modifications, driven by miRNAs, have been proven to contribute to LSCC development. Despite advances in molecular medicine, there are still aspects of laryngeal cancer that remain poorly understood, and the underlying biological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this narrative review, we examined the literature to analyze and summarize the main steps of carcinogenesis and the risk factors associated with laryngeal cancer.
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