Peripheral nerves are complex organs that spread throughout the entire human body. They are frequently affected by lesions not only as a result of trauma but also following radical tumor resection. In fact, despite the advancement in surgical techniques, such as nerve-sparing robot assisted radical prostatectomy, some degree of nerve injury may occur resulting in erectile dysfunction with significant impairment of the quality of life. The aim of this review was to provide an overview on the mechanisms of the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves and to describe the potential strategies to improve the regeneration process and the functional recovery. Yet, the recent advances in bio-engineering strategies to promote nerve regeneration in the urological field are outlined with a view on the possible future regenerative therapies which might ameliorate the functional outcome after radical prostatectomy.
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