INTRODUCTION: Frailty has been recognized as a major risk factor for adverse perioperative and oncological outcomes in patients with genitourinary malignancies. Yet, the evidence supporting such an association in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still sparse. Herein we provide an updated comprehensive overview of the impact of frailty on perioperative and oncologic outcomes in patients undergoing surgery or ablation for RCC.EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the English-language literature was conducted using the MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases according to the principles highlighted by the EAU Guidelines Office and the PRISMA statement recommendations. The review protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021242516). The overall quality of evidence was assessed according to GRADE recommendations.EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall, 18 studies were included in the qualitative analysis. Most of these were retrospective single-center series including patients undergoing surgery for non-metastatic RCC. The overall quality of evidence was low. A variety of measures were used for frailty assessment, including the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Frailty Index, the five-item frailty index, the Modified Rockwood's Clinical Frailty Scale Score, the Hopkins Frailty score, the Groningen Frailty Index, and the Geriatric nutritional risk index. Sarcopenia was defined based on the Lumbar skeletal muscle mass at cross-sectional imaging, the skeletal muscle index, the total psoas area, or the Psoas Muscle Index. Overall, available studies point to frailty and sarcopenia as potential independent risk factors for worse perioperative and oncological outcomes after surgery or ablation for different RCC stages. Increased patient's frailty was indeed associated with higher risk of perioperative complications, healthcare resources utilization, readmission rates and longer hospitalization periods, as well as potentially lower cancer specific or overall survival.CONCLUSIONS: Frailty has been consistently associated with worse outcomes after surgery for RCC, reinforcing the value of preoperative frailty assessment in carefully selected patients. Given the low quality of the available evidence (especially in the setting of tumor ablation), prospective studies are needed to standardize frailty assessments and to identify patients who are expected to benefit most from preoperative geriatric evaluation, aiming to optimize decision-making and postoperative outcomes in patients with RCC.

Impact of frailty on perioperative and oncologic outcomes in patients undergoing surgery or ablation for renal cancer: a systematic review

Bertolo, Riccardo;Pecoraro, Angela;
2022-01-01

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Frailty has been recognized as a major risk factor for adverse perioperative and oncological outcomes in patients with genitourinary malignancies. Yet, the evidence supporting such an association in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still sparse. Herein we provide an updated comprehensive overview of the impact of frailty on perioperative and oncologic outcomes in patients undergoing surgery or ablation for RCC.EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the English-language literature was conducted using the MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases according to the principles highlighted by the EAU Guidelines Office and the PRISMA statement recommendations. The review protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021242516). The overall quality of evidence was assessed according to GRADE recommendations.EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall, 18 studies were included in the qualitative analysis. Most of these were retrospective single-center series including patients undergoing surgery for non-metastatic RCC. The overall quality of evidence was low. A variety of measures were used for frailty assessment, including the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Frailty Index, the five-item frailty index, the Modified Rockwood's Clinical Frailty Scale Score, the Hopkins Frailty score, the Groningen Frailty Index, and the Geriatric nutritional risk index. Sarcopenia was defined based on the Lumbar skeletal muscle mass at cross-sectional imaging, the skeletal muscle index, the total psoas area, or the Psoas Muscle Index. Overall, available studies point to frailty and sarcopenia as potential independent risk factors for worse perioperative and oncological outcomes after surgery or ablation for different RCC stages. Increased patient's frailty was indeed associated with higher risk of perioperative complications, healthcare resources utilization, readmission rates and longer hospitalization periods, as well as potentially lower cancer specific or overall survival.CONCLUSIONS: Frailty has been consistently associated with worse outcomes after surgery for RCC, reinforcing the value of preoperative frailty assessment in carefully selected patients. Given the low quality of the available evidence (especially in the setting of tumor ablation), prospective studies are needed to standardize frailty assessments and to identify patients who are expected to benefit most from preoperative geriatric evaluation, aiming to optimize decision-making and postoperative outcomes in patients with RCC.
2022
Complications
Frailty
Nephrectomy
Outcomes
Renal Cancer
Aged
Canada
Humans
Postoperative Complications
Retrospective Studies
Frailty
Kidney Neoplasms
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1110946
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