Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a severe malignancy with increasing incidence, poorly understood pathogenesis, and low survival rates. We sequenced 164 EAC samples of naïve patients (without chemo-radiotherapy) with high coverage using next-generation sequencing technologies. A total of 337 variants were identified across the whole cohort, with TP53 as the most frequently altered gene (67.27%). Missense mutations in TP53 correlated with worse cancer-specific survival (log-rank p = 0.001). In seven cases, we found disruptive mutations in HNF1alpha associated with other gene alterations. Moreover, we detected gene fusions through massive parallel sequencing of RNA, indicating that it is not a rare event in EAC. In conclusion, we report that a specific type of TP53 mutation (missense changes) negatively affected cancer-specific survival in EAC. HNF1alpha was identified as a new EAC-mutated gene.
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