Despite negative results of clinical trials conducted on the overall population of patients with gastric cancer, PARP inhibitor (PARPi) therapeutic strategy still might represent a window of opportunity for a subpopulation of patients with gastric cancer. An estimated 7% to 12% of gastric cancers exhibit a mutational signature associated with homologous recombination (HR) failure, suggesting that these patients could potentially benefit from PARPis. To analyze respon-siveness of gastric cancer to PARPi, we exploited a gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA) platform of patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and PDX-derived primary cells and selected 10 PDXs with loss-of-function mutations in HR pathway genes. Cell viability assays and preclinical trials showed that olaparib treatment was effective in PDXs harboring BRCA2 germline mutations and somat-ic inactivation of the second allele. Olaparib responsive tumors were sensitive to oxaliplatin as well. Evaluation of HR deficiency (HRD) and mutational signatures efficiently stratified responder and nonresponder PDXs. A retrospective analysis on 57 patients with GEA showed that BRCA2 inactivating variants were associated with longer progression-free survival upon platinum-based regi-mens. Five of 7 patients with BRCA2 germline mutations carried the p.K3326* variant, classified as "benign." However, familial history of cancer, the absence of RAD51 foci in tumor cells, and a high HRD score suggest a deleterious effect of this mutation in gastric cancer. In conclusion, PARPis could represent an effective therapeutic option for BRCA2-mutated and/or high HRD score patients with GEA, including patients with familial intestinal gastric cancer.

BRCA2 Germline Mutations Identify Gastric Cancers Responsive to PARP Inhibitors

De Manzoni, Giovanni;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Despite negative results of clinical trials conducted on the overall population of patients with gastric cancer, PARP inhibitor (PARPi) therapeutic strategy still might represent a window of opportunity for a subpopulation of patients with gastric cancer. An estimated 7% to 12% of gastric cancers exhibit a mutational signature associated with homologous recombination (HR) failure, suggesting that these patients could potentially benefit from PARPis. To analyze respon-siveness of gastric cancer to PARPi, we exploited a gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA) platform of patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and PDX-derived primary cells and selected 10 PDXs with loss-of-function mutations in HR pathway genes. Cell viability assays and preclinical trials showed that olaparib treatment was effective in PDXs harboring BRCA2 germline mutations and somat-ic inactivation of the second allele. Olaparib responsive tumors were sensitive to oxaliplatin as well. Evaluation of HR deficiency (HRD) and mutational signatures efficiently stratified responder and nonresponder PDXs. A retrospective analysis on 57 patients with GEA showed that BRCA2 inactivating variants were associated with longer progression-free survival upon platinum-based regi-mens. Five of 7 patients with BRCA2 germline mutations carried the p.K3326* variant, classified as "benign." However, familial history of cancer, the absence of RAD51 foci in tumor cells, and a high HRD score suggest a deleterious effect of this mutation in gastric cancer. In conclusion, PARPis could represent an effective therapeutic option for BRCA2-mutated and/or high HRD score patients with GEA, including patients with familial intestinal gastric cancer.
2023
Germ-Line Mutation, Gastric Cancers, PARP Inhibitors
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1109267
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