Aim: We examined whether different insulin administration modalities, i.e., multiple daily injections (MDI) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII by insulin pumps), are differently associated with the risk of having metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), with or without coexisting significant liver fibrosis (assessed by validated non-invasive biomarkers), in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study involving 1,417 adult individuals with established T1DM treated with MDI or CSII. We calculated hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fibrosis (FIB)-4 index for non-invasively detecting MAFLD (defined by HSI >36), with or without coexisting significant fibrosis (defined by FIB-4 index ≥ 1.3 or <1.3, respectively). Results: Compared to the MDI group (n=1,161), insulin-pump users (n=256; 18.1%) were more likely to be younger (mean age: 40 vs. 48 years, P < 0.001), had better glycemic control (mean hemoglobin A1c: 7.7% vs. 7.9%, P = 0.025) and a markedly lower prevalence of MAFLD with coexisting significant fibrosis (2.7% vs. 8.1%, P = 0.010), but a comparable prevalence of MAFLD without fibrosis. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, CSII therapy was associated with a ∼70%-lower risk of having MAFLD with significant fibrosis (unadjusted odds ratio 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.70; P = 0.004), but this association was no longer significant after adjustment for age, hemoglobin A1c and other potential confounders. Conclusion: The lower prevalence of MAFLD with coexisting significant fibrosis we observed in adults with T1DM using CSII therapy, compared to those using MDI therapy, is primarily mediated by inter-group differences in age.
Csermely, Alessandro;Mantovani, Alessandro;Targher, Giovanni
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