: Multiple sclerosis (MS) predominantly affects women of fertile age. Various aspects of MS could impact on fertility, such as sexual dysfunction, endocrine alterations, autoimmune imbalances, and disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The proportion of women with MS (wMS) requesting infertility management and assisted reproductive technology (ART) is increasing over time. In this review, we report on data regarding ART in wMS and address safety issues. We also discuss the clinical aspects to consider when planning a course of treatment for infertility, and provide updated recommendations to guide neurologists in the management of wMS undergoing ART, with the goal of reducing the risk of disease activation after this procedure. According to most studies, there is an increase in relapse rate and magnetic resonance imaging activity after ART. Therefore, to reduce the risk of relapse, ART should be considered in wMS with stable disease. In wMS, especially those with high disease activity, fertility issues should be discussed early as the choice of DMT, and fertility preservation strategies might be proposed in selected cases to ensure both disease control and a safe pregnancy. For patients with stable disease taking DMTs compatible with pregnancy, treatment should not be interrupted before ART. If the ongoing therapy is contraindicated in pregnancy, then it should be switched to a compatible therapy. Prior to beginning fertility treatments in wMS, it would be reasonable to assess vitamin D serum levels, thyroid function and its antibody serum levels; start folic acid supplementation; and ensure smoking and alcohol cessation, adequate sleep, and food hygiene. Cervico-vaginal swabs for Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Chlamydia trachomatis, as well as serology for viral hepatitis, HIV, syphilis, and cytomegalovirus, should be performed. Steroids could be administered under specific indications. Although the available data do not clearly show a definite raised relapse risk associated with a specific ART protocol, it seems reasonably safe to prefer the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists for ovarian stimulation. Close clinical and radiological monitoring is reasonably recommended, particularly after hormonal stimulation and in case of pregnancy failure.

Assisted Reproductive Technology and Disease Management in Infertile Women with Multiple Sclerosis

Ingrasciotta, Ylenia;Vitturi, Giacomo;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Multiple sclerosis (MS) predominantly affects women of fertile age. Various aspects of MS could impact on fertility, such as sexual dysfunction, endocrine alterations, autoimmune imbalances, and disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The proportion of women with MS (wMS) requesting infertility management and assisted reproductive technology (ART) is increasing over time. In this review, we report on data regarding ART in wMS and address safety issues. We also discuss the clinical aspects to consider when planning a course of treatment for infertility, and provide updated recommendations to guide neurologists in the management of wMS undergoing ART, with the goal of reducing the risk of disease activation after this procedure. According to most studies, there is an increase in relapse rate and magnetic resonance imaging activity after ART. Therefore, to reduce the risk of relapse, ART should be considered in wMS with stable disease. In wMS, especially those with high disease activity, fertility issues should be discussed early as the choice of DMT, and fertility preservation strategies might be proposed in selected cases to ensure both disease control and a safe pregnancy. For patients with stable disease taking DMTs compatible with pregnancy, treatment should not be interrupted before ART. If the ongoing therapy is contraindicated in pregnancy, then it should be switched to a compatible therapy. Prior to beginning fertility treatments in wMS, it would be reasonable to assess vitamin D serum levels, thyroid function and its antibody serum levels; start folic acid supplementation; and ensure smoking and alcohol cessation, adequate sleep, and food hygiene. Cervico-vaginal swabs for Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Chlamydia trachomatis, as well as serology for viral hepatitis, HIV, syphilis, and cytomegalovirus, should be performed. Steroids could be administered under specific indications. Although the available data do not clearly show a definite raised relapse risk associated with a specific ART protocol, it seems reasonably safe to prefer the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists for ovarian stimulation. Close clinical and radiological monitoring is reasonably recommended, particularly after hormonal stimulation and in case of pregnancy failure.
2023
VITAMIN-D, OVARIAN STIMULATION, RELAPSE RATE, AUTOIMMUNE-THYROIDITIS, OVULATION INDUCTION, GLATIRAMER ACETATE,EARLY-PREGNANCY, FERTILITY, LETROZOLE, RISK
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1105387
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