Bone disorders are a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), obesity and gut malabsorption. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is defined as an appropriate increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, driven by either reduced serum calcium or increased phosphate concentrations, due to an underlying condition. The available evidence on the effects of dietary advice on secondary hyperparathyroidism confirms the benefit of a diet characterized by decreased phosphate intake, avoiding low calcium and vitamin D consumption (recommended intakes 1000-1200 mg/day and 400-800 UI/day, respectively). In addition, low protein intake in CKD patients is associated with a better control of SHPT risk factors, although its strength in avoiding hyperphosphatemia and the resulting outcomes are debated, mostly for dialyzed patients. Ultimately, a consensus on the effect of dietary acid loads in the prevention of SHPT is still lacking. In conclusion, a reasonable approach for reducing the risk for secondary hyperparathyroidism is to individualize dietary manipulation based on existing risk factors and concomitant medical conditions. More studies are needed to evaluate long-term outcomes of a balanced diet on the management and prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism in at-risk patients at.
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