Epidemiological evidence shows that nephrolithiasis is associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidities. The association between nephrolithiasis and CV disease is not surprising because both diseases share conditions that facilitate their development. Metabolic conditions, encompassed in the definition of metabolic syndrome (MS), and habits that promote nephrolithiasis by altering urine composition also promote clinical manifestations of CV disease. By inducing oxidative stress, these conditions cause endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness, which are both well-known predictors of CV disease. Furthermore, the subtle systemic metabolic acidosis observed in stone formers with CV disease may have a pathogenic role by increasing bone turnover and leading to reduced mineral content and osteoporosis/osteopenia. Heart valves and/or coronary artery and aortic calcifications are frequently associated with reduced mineral density. This is known as the 'calcification paradox' in osteoporosis and has also been observed in subjects with calcium nephrolithiasis. Evidence supports the hypothesis that osteoporosis/osteopenia is an independent risk factor for the development of CV calcifications. In the long term, episodes of renal stones may occur from the onset of metabolic derangements/MS to arterial stiffness/atherosclerosis and CV morbidities. These episodes should be considered a warning sign of an ongoing and silent atherosclerotic process. The evaluation of cardiometabolic risk factors and MS components should be routine in the assessment of renal stone formers. This would allow for treatment and prevention of the development of CV complications, which are much more severe for the patient and for public health.

Nephrolithiasis: A Red Flag for Cardiovascular Risk

Alessia Gambaro
;
Gianmarco Lombardi;Flavio Luciano RIBICHINI;Pietro Manuel Ferraro;Giovanni Gambaro
2022-01-01

Abstract

Epidemiological evidence shows that nephrolithiasis is associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidities. The association between nephrolithiasis and CV disease is not surprising because both diseases share conditions that facilitate their development. Metabolic conditions, encompassed in the definition of metabolic syndrome (MS), and habits that promote nephrolithiasis by altering urine composition also promote clinical manifestations of CV disease. By inducing oxidative stress, these conditions cause endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness, which are both well-known predictors of CV disease. Furthermore, the subtle systemic metabolic acidosis observed in stone formers with CV disease may have a pathogenic role by increasing bone turnover and leading to reduced mineral content and osteoporosis/osteopenia. Heart valves and/or coronary artery and aortic calcifications are frequently associated with reduced mineral density. This is known as the 'calcification paradox' in osteoporosis and has also been observed in subjects with calcium nephrolithiasis. Evidence supports the hypothesis that osteoporosis/osteopenia is an independent risk factor for the development of CV calcifications. In the long term, episodes of renal stones may occur from the onset of metabolic derangements/MS to arterial stiffness/atherosclerosis and CV morbidities. These episodes should be considered a warning sign of an ongoing and silent atherosclerotic process. The evaluation of cardiometabolic risk factors and MS components should be routine in the assessment of renal stone formers. This would allow for treatment and prevention of the development of CV complications, which are much more severe for the patient and for public health.
2022
calcification paradox
cardiovascular risk
ectopic calcification
hypertension
metabolic syndrome
nephrolithiasis
osteoporosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1101972
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