Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an important, if underprescribed, modality for the treatment of patients with end-stage kidney disease. Among the barriers to its wider use are the deleterious effects of currently commercially available glucose-based PD solutions on the morphological integrity and function of the peritoneal membrane due to fibrosis. This is primarily driven by hyperglycaemia due to its effects, through multiple cytokine and transcription factor signalling-and their metabolic sequelae-on the synthesis of collagen and other extracellular membrane components. In this review, we outline these interactions and explore how novel PD solution formulations are aimed at utilizing this knowledge to minimise the complications associated with fibrosis, while maintaining adequate rates of ultrafiltration across the peritoneal membrane and preservation of patient urinary volumes. We discuss the development of a new generation of reduced-glucose PD solutions that employ a variety of osmotically active constituents and highlight the biochemical rationale underlying optimization of oxidative metabolism within the peritoneal membrane. They are aimed at achieving optimal clinical outcomes and improving the whole-body metabolic profile of patients, particularly those who are glucose-intolerant, insulin-resistant, or diabetic, and for whom daily exposure to high doses of glucose is contraindicated.

How to improve the biocompatibility of peritoneal dialysis solutions (Without jeopardizing the patient?s health)

Gambaro G.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an important, if underprescribed, modality for the treatment of patients with end-stage kidney disease. Among the barriers to its wider use are the deleterious effects of currently commercially available glucose-based PD solutions on the morphological integrity and function of the peritoneal membrane due to fibrosis. This is primarily driven by hyperglycaemia due to its effects, through multiple cytokine and transcription factor signalling-and their metabolic sequelae-on the synthesis of collagen and other extracellular membrane components. In this review, we outline these interactions and explore how novel PD solution formulations are aimed at utilizing this knowledge to minimise the complications associated with fibrosis, while maintaining adequate rates of ultrafiltration across the peritoneal membrane and preservation of patient urinary volumes. We discuss the development of a new generation of reduced-glucose PD solutions that employ a variety of osmotically active constituents and highlight the biochemical rationale underlying optimization of oxidative metabolism within the peritoneal membrane. They are aimed at achieving optimal clinical outcomes and improving the whole-body metabolic profile of patients, particularly those who are glucose-intolerant, insulin-resistant, or diabetic, and for whom daily exposure to high doses of glucose is contraindicated.
2021
peritoneal dialysis
glucose
L-carnitine
xylitol
alanyl-glutamine
solution
biocompatibility
PD fluid
peritoneal fibrosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1101466
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