The mucosal barrier constitutes a huge surface area, close to 40 m2 in humans, located mostly in the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts and ocular cavities. It plays a crucial role in tissue interactions with the microbiome, dietary antigens and other environmental materials. Effective vaccinations to achieve highly protective mucosal immunity are evolving strategies to counteract several serious diseases including tuberculosis, diphtheria, influenzae B, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Human Papilloma Virus infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Interestingly, one of the reasons behind the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants has been the weakness of local immunization at the level of the respiratory mucosa. Mucosal vaccines can outperform parenteral vaccination as they specifically elicit protective mucosal immune responses blocking infection and transmission. In this scenario, chitosan-based nanovaccines are promising adjuvants-carrier systems that rely on the ability of chitosan to cross tight junctions and enhance particle uptake due to chitosan-specific mucoadhesive properties. Indeed, chitosan not only improves the adhesion of antigens to the mucosa promoting their absorption but also shows intrinsic immunostimulant abilities. Furthermore, by finely tuning the colloidal properties of chitosan, it can provide sustained antigen release to strongly activate the humoral defense. In the present review, we agnostically discuss the potential reasons why chitosan-based vaccine carriers, that efficiently elicit strong immune responses in experimental setups and in some pre-clinical/clinical studies, are still poorly considered for therapeutic formulations.

Efficiency of Chitosan Nanocarriers in Vaccinology for Mucosal Immunization

Gaglio, Salvatore Calogero;Perduca, Massimiliano
;
Zipeto, Donato
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The mucosal barrier constitutes a huge surface area, close to 40 m2 in humans, located mostly in the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts and ocular cavities. It plays a crucial role in tissue interactions with the microbiome, dietary antigens and other environmental materials. Effective vaccinations to achieve highly protective mucosal immunity are evolving strategies to counteract several serious diseases including tuberculosis, diphtheria, influenzae B, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Human Papilloma Virus infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Interestingly, one of the reasons behind the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants has been the weakness of local immunization at the level of the respiratory mucosa. Mucosal vaccines can outperform parenteral vaccination as they specifically elicit protective mucosal immune responses blocking infection and transmission. In this scenario, chitosan-based nanovaccines are promising adjuvants-carrier systems that rely on the ability of chitosan to cross tight junctions and enhance particle uptake due to chitosan-specific mucoadhesive properties. Indeed, chitosan not only improves the adhesion of antigens to the mucosa promoting their absorption but also shows intrinsic immunostimulant abilities. Furthermore, by finely tuning the colloidal properties of chitosan, it can provide sustained antigen release to strongly activate the humoral defense. In the present review, we agnostically discuss the potential reasons why chitosan-based vaccine carriers, that efficiently elicit strong immune responses in experimental setups and in some pre-clinical/clinical studies, are still poorly considered for therapeutic formulations.
2023
mucosal barrier; chitosan nanoparticles; vaccines; mucosal vaccines; local immunization
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1101386
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