Background: Further stratification of the risk of recurrence of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT) will facilitate selection of candidates for adjuvant therapy. Objective: To assess the impact of tumor grade discrepancy (GD) between the primary tumor (PT) and VTT in nonmetastatic ccRCC on disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Design, setting, and participants: This was a retrospective analysis of a multi-institutional nationwide data set for patients with pT3N0M0 ccRCC who underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy. Outcomes measurements and statistical analysis: Pathology slides were centrally reviewed. GD, a bidirectional variable (upgrading or downgrading), was numerically defined as the VTT grade minus the PT grade. Multivariable models were built to predict DFS, OS, and CSS. Results and limitations: We analyzed data for 604 patients with median follow-up of 42 mo (excluding events). Tumor GD between VTT and PT was observed for 47% (285/604) of the patients and was an independent risk factor with incremental value in predicting the outcomes of interest (all p < 0.05). Incorporation of tumor GD significantly improved the performance of the ECOG-ACRIN 2805 (ASSURE) model. A GD-based model (PT grade, GD, pT stage, PT sarcomatoid features, fat invasion, and VTT consistency) had a c index of 0.72 for DFS. The hazard ratios were 8.0 for GD = +2 (p < 0.001), 1.9 for GD = +1 (p < 0.001), 0.57 for GD = -1 (p = 0.001), and 0.22 for GD = -2 (p = 0.003) versus GD = 0 as the reference. According to model-converted risk scores, DFS, OS, and CSS significantly differed between subgroups with low, intermediate, and high risk (all p < 0.001). Conclusions: Routine reporting of VTT upgrading or downgrading in relation to the PT and use of our GD-based nomograms can facilitate more informed treatment decisions by tailoring strategies to an individual patient's risk of progression. Patient summary: We developed a tool to improve patient counseling and guide decision-making on other therapies in addition to surgery for patients with the clear-cell type of kidney cancer and tumor invasion of a vein.

Prognostic Significance of Grade Discrepancy Between Primary Tumor and Venous Thrombus in Nonmetastatic Clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Analysis of the REMEMBER Registry and Implications for Adjuvant Therapy

Bertolo, Riccardo;Caliò, Anna;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Further stratification of the risk of recurrence of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT) will facilitate selection of candidates for adjuvant therapy. Objective: To assess the impact of tumor grade discrepancy (GD) between the primary tumor (PT) and VTT in nonmetastatic ccRCC on disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Design, setting, and participants: This was a retrospective analysis of a multi-institutional nationwide data set for patients with pT3N0M0 ccRCC who underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy. Outcomes measurements and statistical analysis: Pathology slides were centrally reviewed. GD, a bidirectional variable (upgrading or downgrading), was numerically defined as the VTT grade minus the PT grade. Multivariable models were built to predict DFS, OS, and CSS. Results and limitations: We analyzed data for 604 patients with median follow-up of 42 mo (excluding events). Tumor GD between VTT and PT was observed for 47% (285/604) of the patients and was an independent risk factor with incremental value in predicting the outcomes of interest (all p < 0.05). Incorporation of tumor GD significantly improved the performance of the ECOG-ACRIN 2805 (ASSURE) model. A GD-based model (PT grade, GD, pT stage, PT sarcomatoid features, fat invasion, and VTT consistency) had a c index of 0.72 for DFS. The hazard ratios were 8.0 for GD = +2 (p < 0.001), 1.9 for GD = +1 (p < 0.001), 0.57 for GD = -1 (p = 0.001), and 0.22 for GD = -2 (p = 0.003) versus GD = 0 as the reference. According to model-converted risk scores, DFS, OS, and CSS significantly differed between subgroups with low, intermediate, and high risk (all p < 0.001). Conclusions: Routine reporting of VTT upgrading or downgrading in relation to the PT and use of our GD-based nomograms can facilitate more informed treatment decisions by tailoring strategies to an individual patient's risk of progression. Patient summary: We developed a tool to improve patient counseling and guide decision-making on other therapies in addition to surgery for patients with the clear-cell type of kidney cancer and tumor invasion of a vein.
2024
Adjuvant therapy; Downgrading; Model; Prognosis; Progression; Renal cell carcinoma; Tumor grade; Upgrading; Venous tumor thrombus
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1100107
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