Small molecule therapy is a critical component of targeted anticancer treatment, with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) being the first compounds to treat the clonal Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (CML) translocation t (9;22) (q34; q11) effectively since 2001. TKIs, such as imatinib, have improved the 10-year survival rate of CML patients to 80%. They bind the BCR::ABL1 kinase and inhibit downstream signaling pathways. However, therapy failure may be seen in 20-25% of CML patients due to intolerance or inadequacy related to BCR::ABL1 dependent or independent mechanisms. This review aimed to summarize current treatment options involving TKIs, resistance mechanisms and the prospective approaches to overcome TKI resistance. We highlight BCR::ABL1-dependent mechanisms of TKI resistance by reviewing clinically-documented BCR::ABL1 mutations and their consequences for TKI binding. In addition, we summarize BCR::ABL1 independent pathways, including the relevance of drug efflux, dysregulation of microRNA, and the involvement of alternative signaling pathways. We also discuss future approaches, such as gene-editing techniques in the context of CML, as potential therapeutic strategies.

Management of chronic myeloid leukaemia: current treatment options, challenges, and future strategies

Sorio, Claudio;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Small molecule therapy is a critical component of targeted anticancer treatment, with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) being the first compounds to treat the clonal Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (CML) translocation t (9;22) (q34; q11) effectively since 2001. TKIs, such as imatinib, have improved the 10-year survival rate of CML patients to 80%. They bind the BCR::ABL1 kinase and inhibit downstream signaling pathways. However, therapy failure may be seen in 20-25% of CML patients due to intolerance or inadequacy related to BCR::ABL1 dependent or independent mechanisms. This review aimed to summarize current treatment options involving TKIs, resistance mechanisms and the prospective approaches to overcome TKI resistance. We highlight BCR::ABL1-dependent mechanisms of TKI resistance by reviewing clinically-documented BCR::ABL1 mutations and their consequences for TKI binding. In addition, we summarize BCR::ABL1 independent pathways, including the relevance of drug efflux, dysregulation of microRNA, and the involvement of alternative signaling pathways. We also discuss future approaches, such as gene-editing techniques in the context of CML, as potential therapeutic strategies.
2023
BCR::ABL1
Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML)
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)
cancer
personalized medicine
precision medicine
resistance
therapeutic targets
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1098968
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