The goal of this investigation was to identify potential risk factors to predict the onset of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Through the identification of the multiple variables positively associated to MRONJ, we aim to write a paradigm for integrated MRONJ risk assessment built on the combined analysis of systemic and local risk factors. The characteristics of a cohort of cancer patients treated with zoledronic acid and/or denosumab were investigated; beyond the set of proven risk factors a new potential one, the intake of new molecules for cancer therapy, was addressed. Registered data were included in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to individuate significant independent predictors of MRONJ; a propensity score-matching method was performed adjusting by age and sex. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant effect of the parameters number of doses of zoledronic acid and/or denosumab (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.05; p = 0.008) and chemotherapy (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.17-0.71; p = 0.008). The multiple logistic regression model showed that breast, multiple myeloma, and prostate cancer involved a significantly higher risk compared to lung cancer; a significant effect of the combined variables number of doses of zoledronic acid and/or denosumab (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06); p-value = 0.03) and exposure to novel molecule treatment (OR = 34.74; 95% CI = 1.39-868.11; p-value = 0.03) was observed. The results suggest that a risk assessment paradigm is needed for personalized prevention strategies in the light of patient-centered care.
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