: The relationship between chronic intestinal disease, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease (CelD), and pancreatic disorders has been little investigated. Although an increased risk of acute pancreatitis (AP), exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with or without chronic pancreatitis, and chronic asymptomatic pancreatic hyperenzymemia have been described in these patients, the pathogenetic link remains unclear. It may potentially involve drugs, altered microcirculation, gut permeability/motility with disruption of enteric-mediated hormone secretion, bacterial translocation, and activation of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue related to chronic inflammation. In addition, the risk of pancreatic cancer seems to be increased in both IBD and CelD patients with unknown pathogenesis. Finally, other systemic conditions (e.g., IgG4-related disease, sarcoidosis, vasculitides) might affect pancreatic gland and the intestinal tract with various clinical manifestations. This review includes the current understandings of this enigmatic association, reporting a clinical and pathophysiological overview about this topic.
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