The diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis (AE) requires reasonable exclusion of other conditions. The aim of this study is to characterize mimickers and misdiagnoses of AE, thus we performed an independent PubMed search for mimickers of AEs or patients with alternative neurological disorders misdiagnosed as AE. Fifty-eight studies with 66 patients were included. Neoplastic (n = 17), infectious (n = 15), genetic (n = 13), neurodegenerative (n = 8), and other neurological (n = 8) or systemic autoimmune (n = 5) disorders were misdiagnosed as AE. The lack of fulfillment of diagnostic criteria for AE, atypical neuroimaging findings, non-inflammatory CSF findings, non-specific autoantibody specificities and partial response to immunotherapy were major confounding factors.

Autoimmune encephalitis misdiagnosis and mimics

Dinoto, Alessandro;Mariotto, Sara;Ferrari, Sergio;Sechi, Elia;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis (AE) requires reasonable exclusion of other conditions. The aim of this study is to characterize mimickers and misdiagnoses of AE, thus we performed an independent PubMed search for mimickers of AEs or patients with alternative neurological disorders misdiagnosed as AE. Fifty-eight studies with 66 patients were included. Neoplastic (n = 17), infectious (n = 15), genetic (n = 13), neurodegenerative (n = 8), and other neurological (n = 8) or systemic autoimmune (n = 5) disorders were misdiagnosed as AE. The lack of fulfillment of diagnostic criteria for AE, atypical neuroimaging findings, non-inflammatory CSF findings, non-specific autoantibody specificities and partial response to immunotherapy were major confounding factors.
2023
Autoimmune encephalitis
Differential diagnosis
Mimickers
Misdiagnosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1089966
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