Increasingly prevalent acute and chronic human brain diseases are scourges for the elderly. Besides the lack of therapies, these ailments share a neuroinflammation that is triggered/sustained by different innate immunity-related protein oligomers called inflammasomes. Relevant neuroinflamma- tion players such as microglia/monocytes typically exhibit a strong NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Hence the idea that NLRP3 suppression might solve neurodegenerative ailments. Here we review the recent Literature about this topic. First, we update conditions and mechanisms, including RNAs, ex- tracellular vesicles/exosomes, endogenous compounds, and ethnic/pharmacological agents/extracts regulating NLRP3 function. Second, we pinpoint NLRP3-activating mechanisms and known NLRP3 inhibition effects in acute (ischemia, stroke, hemorrhage), chronic (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, MS, ALS), and virus-induced (Zika, SARS-CoV-2, and others) human brain diseases. The available data show that (i) disease-specific divergent mechanisms activate the (mainly animal) brains NLRP3; (ii) no evidence proves that NLRP3 inhibition modifies human brain diseases (yet ad hoc trials are ongoing); and (iii) no findings exclude that concurrently activated other-than-NLRP3 inflammasomes might functionally replace the inhibited NLRP3. Finally, we highlight that among the causes of the persistent lack of therapies are the species difference problem in disease models and a preference for symptomatic over etiologic therapeutic approaches. Therefore, we posit that human neural cell-based disease models could drive etiological, pathogenetic, and therapeutic advances, including NLRP3’s and other inflammasomes’ regulation, while minimizing failure risks in candidate drug trials.

NLRP3 Inflammasome’s Activation in Acute and Chronic Brain Diseases—An Update on Pathogenetic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives with Respect to Other Inflammasomes

Chiarini, Anna
;
Viviani, Chiara;Armato, Ubaldo;Dal Prà, Ilaria
2023-01-01

Abstract

Increasingly prevalent acute and chronic human brain diseases are scourges for the elderly. Besides the lack of therapies, these ailments share a neuroinflammation that is triggered/sustained by different innate immunity-related protein oligomers called inflammasomes. Relevant neuroinflamma- tion players such as microglia/monocytes typically exhibit a strong NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Hence the idea that NLRP3 suppression might solve neurodegenerative ailments. Here we review the recent Literature about this topic. First, we update conditions and mechanisms, including RNAs, ex- tracellular vesicles/exosomes, endogenous compounds, and ethnic/pharmacological agents/extracts regulating NLRP3 function. Second, we pinpoint NLRP3-activating mechanisms and known NLRP3 inhibition effects in acute (ischemia, stroke, hemorrhage), chronic (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, MS, ALS), and virus-induced (Zika, SARS-CoV-2, and others) human brain diseases. The available data show that (i) disease-specific divergent mechanisms activate the (mainly animal) brains NLRP3; (ii) no evidence proves that NLRP3 inhibition modifies human brain diseases (yet ad hoc trials are ongoing); and (iii) no findings exclude that concurrently activated other-than-NLRP3 inflammasomes might functionally replace the inhibited NLRP3. Finally, we highlight that among the causes of the persistent lack of therapies are the species difference problem in disease models and a preference for symptomatic over etiologic therapeutic approaches. Therefore, we posit that human neural cell-based disease models could drive etiological, pathogenetic, and therapeutic advances, including NLRP3’s and other inflammasomes’ regulation, while minimizing failure risks in candidate drug trials.
2023
neuroinflammation; inflammasomes; NLRP3; inhibitors; brain; neurodegenerative diseases; virus encephalitis; innate immunity
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1089566
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