: Light is essential for photosynthesis. Nevertheless, its intensity widely changes depending on time of day, weather, season, and localization of individual leaves within canopies. This variability means that light collected by the light-harvesting system is often in excess with respect to photon fluence or spectral quality in the context of the capacity of photosynthetic metabolism to use ATP and reductants produced from the light reactions. Absorption of excess light can lead to increased production of excited, highly reactive intermediates, which expose photosynthetic organisms to serious risks of oxidative damage. Prevention and management of such stress are performed by photoprotective mechanisms, which operate by cutting down light absorption, limiting the generation of redox-active molecules, or scavenging reactive oxygen species that are released despite the operation of preventive mechanisms. Here, we describe the major physiological and molecular mechanisms of photoprotection involved in the harmless removal of the excess light energy absorbed by green algae and land plants. In vivo analyses of mutants targeting photosynthetic components and the enhanced resolution of spectroscopic techniques have highlighted specific mechanisms protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from overexcitation. Recent findings unveil a network of multiple interacting elements, the reaction times of which vary from a millisecond to weeks, that continuously maintain photosynthetic organisms within the narrow safety range between efficient light harvesting and photoprotection.

Dissipation of Light Energy Absorbed in Excess: The Molecular Mechanisms

Bassi, Roberto;Dall'Osto, Luca
2021-01-01

Abstract

: Light is essential for photosynthesis. Nevertheless, its intensity widely changes depending on time of day, weather, season, and localization of individual leaves within canopies. This variability means that light collected by the light-harvesting system is often in excess with respect to photon fluence or spectral quality in the context of the capacity of photosynthetic metabolism to use ATP and reductants produced from the light reactions. Absorption of excess light can lead to increased production of excited, highly reactive intermediates, which expose photosynthetic organisms to serious risks of oxidative damage. Prevention and management of such stress are performed by photoprotective mechanisms, which operate by cutting down light absorption, limiting the generation of redox-active molecules, or scavenging reactive oxygen species that are released despite the operation of preventive mechanisms. Here, we describe the major physiological and molecular mechanisms of photoprotection involved in the harmless removal of the excess light energy absorbed by green algae and land plants. In vivo analyses of mutants targeting photosynthetic components and the enhanced resolution of spectroscopic techniques have highlighted specific mechanisms protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from overexcitation. Recent findings unveil a network of multiple interacting elements, the reaction times of which vary from a millisecond to weeks, that continuously maintain photosynthetic organisms within the narrow safety range between efficient light harvesting and photoprotection.
2021
antioxidant
oxidative stress
photoinhibition
photosynthesis
thermal energy dissipation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1088251
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